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Original Article. Childhood Asthma after Bacterial Colonization of the Airway in Neonates. Hans Bisgaard, M.D., D.M.Sc., Mette Northman Hermansen, M.D., Frederik. Symptom checker allowing research of the causes of one or many symptoms in an extensive knowledge base, including common and rare causes.
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Dog Owner's Guide: Canine Coughs. A cough is not necessarily a cold. Introduction. Dogs cough for a variety of reasons, some of which can be serious in themselves and others that are signs of an underlying problem. Internal parasites, heartworm disease, distemper, fungus diseases, tuberculosis, allergies, and pollutants such as cigarette smoke can cause Fido to cough.
Coughs are triggered by irritants in the air passages and can be characterized as dry and hacking; moist and bubbly; gagging; wheezy; harsh; or weak. It can be frequent, chronic, or intermittent, and is often self- perpetuating as it dries the throat and leads to further irritation.
List of 764 disease causes of Wheezing, patient stories, diagnostic guides, 269 drug side effect causes. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and. 3. Some medicines may affect how this medicine works, or make it more likely that you will have side effects. These include: - beta-blockers, such as metoprolol.
Kennel cough. High, dry coughs are typical of kennel cough or acute tracheobronchitis. A dog with kennel cough seems to feel fine otherwise. Cases usually heal in about two weeks, but the frequent bouts of coughing can be annoying to the owner who lies awake listening to his pet hack away. Treatment includes isolation to avoid infection of other family or kennel dogs, monitoring of temperature, rest, and if the coughing is severe, a veterinarian may recommend use of an expectorant cough syrup.
A humidifier can help the dog breathe easier and thus reduce coughing and further throat inflammation. Kennel cough in puppies and toy breeds can be another story; the throat irritation can be accompanied by thick secretions that can cause pneumonia. Bordatella vaccine protects dogs from several strains of kennel cough. The intranasal version of the vaccine is more effective than the inoculation. Any dog that is constantly exposed to other dogs away from home should be protected against kennel cough.
More on vaccines and vaccination]. Distemper. Many dog owners think that distemper is not a problem because puppies are vaccinated against it. However, not all puppies and dogs are vaccinated, and the disease remains a serious threat to puppies. Age Of Adults In Philippines.
When puppies are born, they get immunity to disease through their mother's antibodies. These antibodies diminish as the pup grows, and vaccinations may not rebuild that immunity quickly enough to protect the pup from distemper and other diseases. Many veterinarians recommend that puppies be kept away from strange dogs for at least 1. Distemper can be mild in dogs that are in good condition or severe in ill- nourished animals. It can be fatal, especially in young puppies or debilitated dogs. Secondary infections can also be a problem. The dry cough associated with distemper appears in the first stage of the disease, when the dog is listless and has a fever (1.
Although these symptoms resemble those of a common head cold in humans, dogs do not catch colds; when they appear, the dog should be taken immediately to the clinic. Distemper is preventable by vaccination.
Veterinarians vaccinate puppies and give yearly boosters with the annual checkup and some veterinarians run vaccination clinics at reduced rates. Owners of unvaccinated pets should get to a veterinarian for a preventive program. Those who choose shot clinics should make sure the vaccines are handled properly and are administered by a licensed professional. Rabies vaccine must be administered by a veterinarian according to Ohio law. Any dog showing signs of illness should be examined before being vaccinated.[ More on vaccines and vaccination] Internal parasites. Infestation of internal parasites such as roundworms and heartworms can cause coughing. Roundworms live in the canine intestine.
The dog can become infected by licking or eating soil contaminated with eggs. The eggs are swallowed and hatch in the intestine; the larval worms travel to the lungs in the bloodstream, crawl up the windpipe, and are swallowed to return to the intestine and mature into adults. As they migrate up the windpipe, the larva can cause bouts of coughing. Puppies can be born with roundworms if the mother is infested.
Pregnant bitches can carry encysted roundworm larva in their tissues. In the last stages of pregnancy, the larva are emitted, enter the bloodstream, and travel to the puppies through the placenta. Worming the mother before birth is ineffective against encysted larvae.
If a dog is in good condition, a light infestation of roundworms is seldom a problem. Heartworm infestation is another thing altogether; by the time the infected dog coughs, he is already severely infected with this serious and often fatal disease. Heartworms are transmitted to dogs by mosquitoes. The mosquito bites the infected dog, ingests the tiny heartworm microfilaria, provides a host for the next stage of development of the parasite, then transfers the juvenile larvae to the bloodstream of the next dog she feeds on. The microfilaria swim to the lungs, where they mature and reproduce, sending more microfilariae into the dog's bloodstream to be ingested by a mosquito. The process of infection takes at least six months. The cough begins when the dog has enough adult heartworms to interfere with exchange of oxygenated blood between lungs and heart.
Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis for infants with first- time wheezing. What is bronchiolitis? Bronchiolitis is an acute, highly contagious, viral infection of the lungs that is common in infants 0 to 1. It occurs every year in the winter months. It causes the small airways in the lungs to become inflamed and fill with debris. The airways are narrowed and this leads to blocking of the free passage of air.
The infant has a harsh cough, runny nose and usually a fever. S/he can become breathless, wheezy and short of oxygen. Why review bronchodilators? Bronchodilators are drugs often used as aerosols to widen the air passages by relaxing the bronchial muscle. They are effective in helping older children and adults with asthma. However, unlike asthmatics, infants with bronchiolitis are usually wheezing for the first time. They are wheezing for a different reason, that is to say, because their airways are clogged with debris.
Therefore, infants with bronchiolitis are less likely to respond to bronchodilators. Study characteristics. We reviewed the evidence about the effect of bronchodilators in infants with bronchiolitis. We found 3. 0 trials that included a total of 1. The evidence is current up to January 2.
We analyzed studies done in outpatient and inpatient settings separately. All bronchodilators were included in the review except for epinephrine because it is reviewed in another Cochrane review. Albuterol (otherwise known as salbutamol) is commonly used in studies, so we also reviewed this bronchodilator as a subgroup. Key results. We found no effect of bronchodilators on oxygen saturation. Infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis showed no significant benefit of bronchodilator treatment. This review also found that bronchodilators do not reduce the need for hospitalization, do not shorten the length of stay in hospital and do not shorten the length of the illness at home.
Reviewing the subgroup of studies using albuterol (salbutamol), we found no effect of this bronchodilator on oxygen saturation or clinical scores. Side effects of bronchodilators include rapid heart beat, decrease in oxygen and shakiness. Given these side effects, little evidence that they are effective and the expense associated with these treatments, bronchodilators are not helpful in the management of bronchiolitis. Quality of the evidence. This review is limited by the small number of studies that use the same measures and methods. For example, only 2.
Older studies included children who had wheezed before and may have had asthma. Thus these older studies favor the use of bronchodilators. Newer studies that excluded infants with prior wheezing and had a better study design do not show a benefit of bronchodilators. This review is also limited by the small number of infants included in each study. Lastly, clinical scores used to measure the effect of the bronchodilators in some studies may vary from one observer to the next, making this measure unreliable. Location Of Spongy Bone In Adults Bone on this page. Studies that include more infants, use better measures and have a stronger study design are needed to define the effectiveness of these medications.