The Dating of Hazor's Destruction in Joshua 1. Via Biblical, Archaeological, and Epigraphical Evidence. I. INTRODUCTIONOn the side of the former view, biblical archaeologists such as Bryant Wood argue that the Exodus must have occurred in the middle of the 1. BC, since the ordinal number “4. Kgs 6: 1 only can be understood literally (contra allegorically, as late- Exodus proponents suggest).
Wood, who mainly presents archaeological evidence to support his case, even declares that “the 1. Exodus- Conquest model is no longer tenable.”Thus the battle over the proper dating of the Exodus and Conquest continues to wage. While this debate cannot be settled in the present article, nor can space be devoted here to the issue of the alleged Ramesside connections with the store- city of Raamses or the problem of archaeology not being able to “provide any trace of Israelites [in Canaan] before the Iron Age (shortly before 1. B. C. E.),” an examination of one aspect of this issue is in order: namely, the destruction of Hazor that is recorded in Joshua 1.
SESSION 1B: Workshop Probing, Publishing, and Promoting the Use of Digital Archaeological Data. The Evidence for a Recent Dating for Adam, 14,000 to 15,000 years ago. As an indigenous activist—I am a Métis from the Paddle Prairie Metis settlement in Alberta, Canada—there is one question I am most often asked by the public, one.
The importance of Hazor’s contribution to the debate on the timing of the Exodus cannot be underestimated, as “Hazor provides the only possible evidence for an Israelite conquest of Canaan in the late 1. BC.The initial Israelite conquest of Canaan under Joshua included three cities that were destroyed and put to the torch: Hazor (Josh 1. Jericho (Josh 6: 2.
Ai (Josh 8: 1. 8–1. Hazor—strategically located on the Great Trunk Road, which is the main commercial highway that cut through Canaan and was part of the principal military route throughout the Late Bronze Age (1. BC)—thus is at the center of the debate over the timing of the Exodus, since it was both destroyed by Joshua and destroyed in the 1. BC. The biblical text requires that the former is true, while archaeology requires that the latter is true. The matter that will be discussed here, however, is whether these destructions are distinct or one and the same.
This study may go a long way toward determining whether or not the Exodus and Conquest transpired in the 1. BC. II. THE DESTROYER OF THE FINAL BRONZE AGE CITY1. The Destroyer’s Nationality. Ancient Hazor consisted of a large, rectangular lower city (1. Yigael Yadin, the archaeologist who excavated at Hazor from 1. Late Bronze Age city, which he believed to have occurred by ca.
An archaeological study years in the making has revealed a wealth of new information about some of Delaware’s earliest colonial settlers.
BC.Evidence of this destruction consists of layers of ashes, burnt wooden beams, cracked basaltic slabs, mutilated basaltic statues, and fallen walls. Yadin’s findings in the lower city confirm that public structures such as the Orthostats Temple and the Stelae Temple were violently destroyed, while the renewed excavations in the upper city—under current excavator Amnon Ben- Tor—corroborate the existence of a fierce conflagration that also is mostly limited to public buildings. This includes both the monumental cultic edifices and the administrative palatial buildings, all of which served as the foci of religious and civil power and wealth at the height of Canaanite Hazor in the 1. BC.Seemingly, the smaller- scale domestic and cultic buildings in the lower city were not similarly burned or violently destroyed, though the campaign did include the decapitation of basaltic statues of gods and kings, and probably also the smashing of ritual vessels found in the temples.[1. Adult Singles Dating Bartlett Iowa on this page. The intentional nature of the desecration of these statues and vessels is clear: “This was a systematic annihilation campaign, against the very physical symbols of the royal ideology and its loci of ritual legitimation.”[1. This desecratory destruction is normally attributed to the Israelites, as argued by both Yadin and Ben- Tor.[1. Kitchen agrees, declaring “that neither the Egyptians, Canaanites nor Sea Peoples destroyed LB Hazor—the early Hebrews remain a feasible option.”[1.
Moreover, Yadin went as far as to make a connection between this particular destruction and the text of Joshua 1. This destruction is doubtless to be ascribed to the Israelite tribes, as related in the Book of Joshua.”[1.
In Sharon Zuckerman’s wonderful article that whets the appetite of all those awaiting the disclosure of Canaanite Hazor’s cuneiform archive(s), she challenges the notion that the Israelites were the actual culprits behind the destruction of the final Canaanite city of the Late Bronze Age, arguing that an internal revolt instead led to the city’s annihilation.[1. This long- time senior staff member at the Hazor excavations suggests that Hazorite rulers and elites enforced a dominant ideology, which the populace contested, resisted, and ultimately revolted against due to the political and religious impositions. While she notes that the other of the two possible explanations for the destruction is military conquest, she completely rules out this option because “there is no archaeological evidence of warfare, such as human victims or weapons, anywhere in the site.”[1.