Causes, symptoms and treatment in adults and children. Mumps is a highly contagious infection spread by a paramyxovirus. The virus can travel in the air through coughs and sneezes, it may be on surfaces people touch, such as door handles or it can be picked- up from cups, cutlery, bowls or plates. The most common symptom of mumps is swollen salivary glands (parotid) glands in the neck, sometimes referred to as a 'hamster face' appearance. The swelling can be on one or both sides of the neck.
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is one of the most vexing clinical conditions for clinicians and patients. There are no published guidelines, nor is there a.
List of 2274 disease causes of Fever, patient stories, diagnostic guides, 1063 drug side effect causes, 224 drug interaction causes. Diagnostic checklist, medical.
- A fever blister spreads from person to person through direct contact. Also called cold sores, here are the causes, symptoms and natural remedies.
- Learn about kidney infection (pyelonephritis) causes such as sexual intercourse, pregnancy, kidney stones, catheters, and poor hygiene. Learn about symptoms.
- Read about diseases and conditions that may cause abdominal pain, and learn about the medications used in treatment. Pinpoint your symptoms and signs with MedicineNet.
Mumps can be prevented in 9. MMR vaccination in childhood or later in life.
Cases of mumps have recently fallen in the UK. There were 7. 13 confirmed cases of mumps in England and Wales in 2. Below are pictures of swollen neck glands from mumps in a child and in an adult. Mumps symptoms. Mumps is most contagious usually before symptoms are noticed. Mumps has an incubation period of 7- 1.
As well as the tell- tale neck swelling, symptoms may include pain and discomfort from the swelling, fever, headache, feeling sick, dry mouth, joint aches and a general malaise. Earpain may be felt, especially when chewing. A sour taste in the mouth may be experienced and swallowing may be difficult. Mumps can result in complications like meningitis and painful swelling of the testicles ( orchitis) or ovaries (oophoritis). In children and adults with mumps and no complications, most get better and have no further side effects.
However, in rare cases neurological damage, hearing loss, pancreatitis and even death can occur. Mumps in pregnancy can be dangerous, with an increased risk of miscarriage in the first 1. Diagnosis of mumps. A doctor will diagnose mumps from the symptoms a patient has, especially the swollen glands. Blood, urine or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests may be taken to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for mumps.
There is no treatment for mumps itself, but age- appropriate painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen may help relieve some of the symptoms. A cold compress such as a moist flannel may help relieve some of the pain from the swollen glands. Resting and drinking plenty of fluids may be advised, as well as having food such as soup that doesn't need to be chewed.
Always seek medical advice if you suspect mumps. GPs need to know about cases of mumps so that public health authorities can help stop the infection spreading. Preventing mumps. To help prevent spreading the virus, anyone with mumps should be kept away from school, university or work until five days after symptoms begin.
The same precautions used in cold and flu prevention help stop mumps from spreading: proper hand washing and using a tissue to catch sneezes, then putting it in a bin straight afterwards. If someone has already had mumps as a child, they usually have lifelong immunity, although second infections have been known. The number of children having the MMR ( measles, mumps and rubella) jab fell for some time after a false scare about safety of the vaccine - which was later discredited. As a result of this, there are teenagers and young adults who didn’t have the vaccine in childhood who are at risk if they don’t get a catch- up jab.
Vaccination against mumps may also be advised for unvaccinated adults travelling to parts of the world where it is more common.
Elevated Liver Enzymes - causes, treatment, and more details. Hearing that one has elevated liver enzymes may be scary. However, the term actually could refer to any one of a number of conditions, and does not necessarily indicate any specific disease. Symptoms may be present, but it is also possible to have elevated liver enzymes with an underlying liver disease, yet have no noticeable symptoms. If you have been diagnosed with elevated liver enzymes, your doctor may recommend that you have further testing. More information about elevated liver enzyme symptoms is available. Elevated liver enzymes are also often called elevated transaminases.
At times the more simple term transaminitis is also used. The particular enzymes which are commonly elevated are alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). In most cases of liver disease, ALT levels will rise above that of AST, however, in the case of greater AST levels alcoholic liver disease is a potential underlying condition.
You can read more here about the liver function tests themselves. Although elevated liver enzymes are quite often present in liver injury, they are also noticed in other conditions. Therefore, a diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in itself does not even confirm any sort of liver damage in the patient. In agreement with this point, previously, liver enzyme levels were actually used as part of the process of diagnosing a heart attack. Recently, however, enzymes more specific to heart damage have been preferred. Is Play Important For Adults. Some common causes of elevated liver enzymes are. Alcohol consumption.
Autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, or other autoimmune disorders of the liver or bile ducts. Diabetes and lupus. High triglycerides, obesity, or heart failure. Fatty liver disease. Gallstones, pancreatitis. Hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, or other metabolic liver diseases.
Viral hepatitis, mononucleosis, or other infections. Liver cancer. Medications such as some nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cholesterol medications, anti- biotics or anti- seizure medicines. Tumors of the liver, pancreas or bile ducts. Using too much of kava kava, comfrey, pennyroyal, skullcap, or particular other herbal supplements.
You can continue reading a larger list of elevated liver enzymes causes. You should talk with your doctor directly regarding treatment options for elevated liver enzymes, as the underlying condition will change which treatments are better or worse for your case. Additional information on liver disease is also available.
Symptoms, Signs, Treatment & Causes. What are risk factors for kidney and urinary tract infection (UTI)? There are many factors that may increase the chances for infection of the kidneys and urinary tract. Premenopausal women are at higher risk for developing UTI and kidney infection. Risk factors within this population include: Sexual intercourse (for women - - may increase the risk of urinary tract infection because of possible introduction of the bacteria around the urethra into the urinary system [a condition sometimes referred to as "honeymoon cystitis"])Previous urinary tract infection. Use of spermicides. History of mother with recurrent UTIs (which suggests a possible genetic component to susceptibility)Pregnancy.
In fact, some pregnant women may have urinary infections during their pregnancy. This may occur because of slower transit of urine in the ureters during pregnancy from the pressure applied by the enlarging uterus. In post- menopausal women, physiological factors (vaginal dryness, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, and prolapse of the pelvic organs) seem to add potential risk to develop UTIs and kidney infections. In men, prostate enlargement is the main risk factor for UTI and kidney infection. Urinary catheters (Foley catheters) also increase the risk of developing urinary and kidney infections.
These catheters are used in settings where an individual may not be able to urinate due to paralysis (neurogenic bladder), prostate enlargement (BPH), prostate cancer, severe illness, bed bound state, incontinence of urine (inability to hold their urine), or bladder dysfunction. Urinary catheters simply provide a physical vehicle for the bacteria from outside to be directly transported into the bladder and the urinary system. Kidney stones and structural abnormalities of the urinary system may also cause kidney infection. Impaired draining and blockage of urine (urinary retention) may cause bacteria to ascend to the kidney without being washed back down with the urine.
Any obstruction to the flow of urine can serve as a focus of infection that can spread to other parts of the urinary tract. Urinary stents placed in ureters to relieve obstruction due to stones or tumors are also a potential risk for kidney infection.
As matter of fact, any instrumentation or procedure of the urinary system (stenting, cystoscopy, biopsy, and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) can pose a risk for infection of the urinary tract. Diabetes may also increase the risk of kidney infection in both men and women. Other conditions or medications that suppress immune function increase the risk of kidney infection.
In children, risk factors for kidney infection include female gender, uncircumcised male, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, and Caucasian race (four times higher than African American).
Check Your Symptoms and Signs. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACRPain in the belly (abdomen) can come from conditions affecting a variety of organs. The abdomen is an anatomical area that is bounded by the lower margin of the ribs above, the pelvic bone (pubic ramus) below, and the flanks on each side. Although abdominal pain can arise from the tissues of the abdominal wall that surround the abdominal cavity (for.
These organs include the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Occasionally, pain may be felt in the abdomen even though it is arising from organs that are close to but not within the abdominal cavity, for example, the lower lungs, the kidneys, and the uterus or ovaries.
This latter type of pain is called "referred" pain because the pain, though originating outside the abdomen, is being referred to (felt) in the abdominal area. Abdominal pain can be acute and sudden in onset, or the. Abdominal pain may be minor and of no.
The characteristics of the pain - - location, timing. Persisting abdominal pain. Various causes of abdominal pain include, but are not limited to, indigestion after eating, gallstones and gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis), pregnancy, gas, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), appendicitis, ulcers, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), pancreatitis, gastroenteritis (viral or bacterial), parasite infection, endometriosis, kidney stones (nephrolithiasis), abdominal muscle injury, abdominal hernia, lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance (celiac disease), food poisoning, menstrual cramps, peritonitis, serositis, ischemic bowel disease, vasculitis, abdominal aneurysm, abdominal organ injury from trauma, and constipation. REFERENCE: Kasper, D. L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 1. Ed. United States: Mc. Graw- Hill Education, 2.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/2/2.