Bone - Wikipedia. A bone is a rigidorgan that constitutes part of the vertebrateskeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. Bone tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue, a type of dense connective tissue. It has a honeycomb- likematrix internally, which helps to give the bone rigidity.
Each year, millions of older people—those 65 and older—fall. In fact, more than one out of four older people falls each year, but less than half tell their doctor. Osteoporosis definition: a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Osteoporosis causes symptoms of weak, thin, fragile bones. Learn the treatments and.
Bone tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface. The mineralised matrix of bone tissue has an organic component of mainly collagen called ossein and an inorganic component of bone mineral made up of various salts. Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and cartilage. In the human body at birth, there are over 2.
Introduction. Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some. Causes. It's not clear what causes primary biliary cholangitis. Many experts consider it an autoimmune disease in which the body turns against its own cells.
The largest bone in the body is the femur or thigh- bone, and the smallest is the stapes in the middle ear. The Latin word for bone is os, hence the many terms that use it as a prefix – such as osseous and osteopathy. StructureBone is not uniformly solid, but includes a tough matrix. This matrix makes up about 3. The matrix is made up of between 9. The primary tissue of bone, bone tissue (osseous tissue), is relatively hard and lightweight. Its matrix is mostly made up of a composite material incorporating the inorganic mineral calcium phosphate in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxylapatite (this is the bone mineral that gives bones their rigidity) and collagen, an elastic protein which improves fracture resistance. The collagen of bone is known as ossein. Bone is formed by the hardening of this matrix around entrapped cells.
When these cells become entrapped from osteoblasts they become osteocytes.Cortical bone. Cross- section details of a long bone.
The hard outer layer of bones is composed of cortical bone also called compact bone being much denser than cancellous bone. It forms the hard exterior (cortex) of bones. The cortical bone gives bone its smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 8. It facilitates bone's main functions: to support the whole body, protect organs, provide levers for movement, and store and release chemical elements, mainly calcium.
It consists of multiple microscopic columns, each called an osteon. Each column is multiple layers of osteoblasts and osteocytes around a central canal called the haversian canal.
Volkmann's canals at right angles connect the osteons together. The columns are metabolically active, and as bone is reabsorbed and created the nature and location of the cells within the osteon will change. Cortical bone is covered by a periosteum on its outer surface, and an endosteum on its inner surface. The endosteum is the boundary between the cortical bone and the cancellous bone. The primary anatomical and functional unit of cortical bone is the osteon.
Cancellous bone. Micrograph of cancellous bone. Cancellous bone also known as trabecular or spongy bone tissue is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell porous network.
Cancellous bone has a higher surface- area- to- volume ratio than cortical bone because it is less dense. This makes it softer, and weaker but more flexible. The greater surface area also makes it suitable for metabolic activities such as the exchange of calcium ions. Cancellous bone is typically found at the ends of long bones, near to joints and within the interior of vertebrae. Pre B Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In Adults. Cancellous bone is highly vascular and frequently contains red bone marrow where haematopoiesis, the production of blood cells, occurs.
The primary anatomical and functional unit of cancellous bone is the trabecula. The trabeculae are aligned towards the mechanical load distribution that a bone experiences within long bones such as the femur. As far as short bones are concerned, trabecular alignment has been studied in the vertebralpedicle. Thin formations of osteoblasts covered in endosteum create an irregular network of spaces, known as trabeculae.
Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. Trabecular marrow is composed of a network of rod- and plate- like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allow room for blood vessels and marrow.
Trabecular bone accounts for the remaining 2. The words cancellous and trabecular refer to the tiny lattice- shaped units (trabeculae) that form the tissue.
Spinal Stenosis Symptoms, Causes & Treatments. Chronic back pain is a major problem for millions of adults.
It’s now estimated that around 7. Contributing to this back pain is spinal stenosis. The spine is a row of 2. Spinal stenosis is often attributed to “wear and tear” caused by aging — considered to be part of the degenerative cascade that causes bone weakening and cartilage loss. However, there are also specific risk factors that make certain people more likely to develop stenosis, including having high levels of inflammation, tumors or injuries that affect the spine, and a history of other inflammatory medical conditions. While older people are most likely to suffer from spinal stenosis, middle- aged adults can develop this condition too. And a small percentage of younger people are also born with inherited, narrowed spinal canals that limit their mobility.
The good news is there are ways you can help manage spinal stenosis. So what exactly is this condition, along with the causes and symptoms, along with how to treat it? Let’s find out. What Is Spinal Stenosis? Spinal stenosis is a disorder that’s caused by narrowing of the spinal canal, which is the passage of nerves that runs down the center of the back. Because stenosis is triggered from accumulating increased pressure that’s placed on the spinal cord and the nerves within the back, it commonly causes back pain, sciatica and other nerve problems. Most people develop symptoms of spinal stenosis that manifest in their lower backs (lumbar region) and their necks, but others experience no noticeable symptoms at all.
It’s also possible to suffer from problems related to bladder or bowel control due to spinal stenosis, caused by nerve damage that’s connected to the lower body. While conventional treatments for stenosis include taking medications to lower inflammation or pain — and sometimes in severe cases spinal surgery — natural treatments including exercise, stretching, physical therapy and warming/icing the painful area can also be highly effective. What Causes Spinal Stenosis? Diagnose Adhd Adults Online. The word “stenosis” means the abnormal narrowing of a body channel. With spinal stenosis, the narrowing happens in the bone channel occupied by the spinal nerves. Older people (usually 5. Some research shows that the prevalence of “degenerative” lumbar stenosis in older adults can be up to 1.
Some common disorders that can contribute to stenosis or occur at the same time include osteoarthritis/degenerative joint disease, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatic nerve pain, spinal injuries or tumors, and genetic diseases that affect the bones of the back (such as Paget’s disease). Stenosis can affect different parts of the spine. When the lower back develops stenosis, it’s called lumbar stenosis, while stenosis in the neck is called cervical stenosis. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Nerve roots in the lower back become compressed, which can cause similar symptoms to sciatica, affecting the buttocks and legs.
Sometimes lumbar spinal stenosis cuts off blood flow to the lower body, which is called neurogenic claudication. About 7. Cervical Spinal Stenosis: Causes pain in the neck and other other nerve problems. When spinal cord compression in the neck becomes severe, it’s possible for serious problems to develop, including extreme weakness or even paralysis, which often requires emergency surgery. Thoracic Stenosis: This is rare and affects the middle/upper portion of the spine.
It’s far less common than the other two types because the rib cage keeps this area of the back more stable and limited in terms of movement. Symptoms of Spinal Stenosis. According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, the most common symptoms of spinal stenosis include: (6)back pain, especially in the lower backneck pain, such as a stiff necktingling “pins and needles” sensations, numbness, and throbbing in the lower body; it’s possible for symptoms to spread throughout the lower body when a nerve root becomes affectedmuscle weakness or pain around the top of the legs, knees and hips (along the sciatic nerve)impaired bladder or bowel controlpain when exercising or lifting heavy objects, usually immediatelyloss of balance and easily fallingpain when standing for long periods of time, coughing, sneezing, bending, stretching or just after getting up in the morningin severe cases, extreme weakness and paralysis. Some people go years without knowing that they’re experiencing early signs of spinal stenosis.
While a small percentage don’t have any pain or symptoms of nerve degeneration, the majority notice symptoms come on gradually. Symptoms commonly start out as minor radiating pain in the lower back or neck, throbbing, muscle weakness, and sometimes numbness. These are all signs of worsening compression of the nerves on the spinal cord.
Pain can be dull at times or sharp and intense at others. As inflammation and degeneration worsen, nerve roots can become affected, which can cause the most severe, radiating pain.
What Is Pain Management? Relief for Back, Knee Pain, Etc.
What are other causes of pain? Other causes of pain include: headaches,facial pain, peripheral nerve pain, coccydynia, compression fractures, post- herpetic neuralgia,myofasciitis, torticollis, piriformis syndrome,plantar fasciitis, lateral epicondylitis, andcancer pain .
Headaches and facial pain, including atypical facial pain and trigeminal neuralgia. Headaches are a major source of discomfort and lost productivity in the workplace. Many effective treatments exist for persisting headaches, including medication, biofeedback, injections and implants, depending upon the precise type of headache.
Botox also provides a useful means of effectively and safely treating headaches. Atypical facial pain can be debilitating. Often times it can be treated by injections into local nerve tissue (such as the sphenopalatine ganglion). Trigeminal neuralgia, also called tic douloureux, is a condition that most commonly causes very intense intermittent shooting pain in the face. Peripheral nerve pain. Peripheral nerve pain, or neuropathy, can be debilitating. It can respond well to simple treatments such a trigger point injections with anesthetic medicines and cryoablation (an office based procedure which involves freezing the nerves).
Examples of peripheral nerve pain include intercostal neuralgia, ilioinguinal neuroma, hypogastric neuroma, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve entrapment, interdigital neuroma and related nerve entrapments. Coccydynia. Coccydynia is simply pain in the region on the tailbone, or coccyx. It can result from trauma or arise without apparent cause. The initial treatment is conservative, with oral pain relief medicines (analgesics). Oftentimes, the pain originates in the portion of the nervous system that we have no control of (involuntary or autonomic nervous system) and can respond to either a local anesthetic injection of the head of a nerve called Ganglion Impar, which is located below the coccyx or by medically destroying (ablating) the Ganglion Impar, usually using radiofrequency. Compression fractures.
Compression fractures of the bony building blocks (vertebral bodies) are common in the elderly as a result of osteoporosis, or loss of calcium in the bone. With less calcium, the bone becomes weak and can break. Like any fracture, compression fractures hurt. Like any fracture, they are treated by stabilization, in this case, by injecting cement into the bone in a procedure known as a vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Vertebroplasty is an effective way to treat the pain of compression fractures. Kyphoplasty uses a balloon to restore height to the compressed vertebral body.
Post- herpetic neuralgia. Post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a painful condition occurring after a bout of shingles. When we are young, we are almost all exposed to chickenpox, caused by the Herpes Zoster virus. Our immune system controls the virus, but it lives in a dormant state in the spinal cord. When we age, or become ill or stressed, the virus can reactivate and attack the infected nerve and adjacent skin. However, in this second attack, the body usually recognizes the Herpes Zoster virus and contains the pain to a localized area, along the course of one nerve.
A patient may have the characteristic blisters, which normally heal. Sometimes, however, the Herpes Zoster virus damages the nerve, causing ongoing nerve pain that persists after the skin blisters from the shingles have healed.
The ideal way to treat the post herpetic neuralgia is to treat it before it sets in. Medications, such as acyclovir (Zovirax), steroids and injections such as sympathetic injections can help prevent the onset of PHN. After the pain is present, injections, local anesthetics, medications [duloxetine (Cymbalta), amitriptyline, (Elavil, Endep)] and pain medications or topical patches can be useful. Myofasciitis and Torticollis. Myofasciitis (pain in the muscles, whether in the neck or back) often responds to conservative physical therapy treatments (for example, massage and exercise). If the pain persists, trigger point injections can be used.
If the trigger point injections provide temporary relief, sometimes Botox injections can help. Botox, which is botulinum toxin, can relax the muscles for six or more months, with long- term relief of pain. It provides a safe, effective treatment for what can otherwise be a difficult, ongoing problem. Torticollis is spasm of the muscles in the neck, forcing the sufferer to hold his or her neck tilted or rotated to the side. Botox is approved for treatment of this problem. Piriformis Syndrome.
The piriformis muscle goes from the hip to sacrum (tailbone). It is important in that the sciatic nerve passes through it. Piriformis syndrome is a spasm of the piriformis muscle. When the muscle goes into spasm, it can squeeze the sciatic nerve, causing pain going down the leg.
Piriformis syndrome will usually respond to physical therapy. When pain persists, local anesthetic and/or steroid injection can help.
Top Ten Bone Diseases LIVESTRONG. COMBone diseases are disorders and conditions that cause abnormal development and/or impairment in normal bone development. This can result in weakened bones, inflamed joints and pain. Your bones naturally lose density after the age of 2. Nutrient deficiencies such a lack of vitamin D or C, hormonal imbalances and cell abnormalities can also cause bone disorders in both children and adults. Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mass and disintegration of bone structure in older adults.
This can cause bone fragility and increases the risk of fractures and breaks. Most individuals who have this disease are not aware of it until a fracture occurs. Osteoporosis can be prevented or decreased by the right nutrition and exercise. Paget's disease is a disorder of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts that are responsible for breaking down, rebuilding and remolding bone tissue. Paget's disease causes bones to become thickened and enlarged but also brittle due to abnormal structural development. This disease is a genetic disorder that is characterized by brittle bones that break or fracture easily. It is caused by a gene defect in the production of collagen, a protein that is needed to make bones strong.
Osteogenesis imperfecta even affects the bones in the inner ear and can cause hearing loss, as well as weak teeth and a curved spine. According to the National Cancer Institute, bone cancer may be due to a primary cancer that begins in the bone or spreads to the bone as secondary cancer from another part of the body such as cancer in the lungs, breast or prostate. There are several types of primary bone cancers such as leukemia, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and chondrosarcoma. This preventable bone disease affects young children and is caused by a deficiency of the nutrient vitamin D. Rickets causes weak, brittle bones that fracture easily and bone and muscle pain. Osteomalacia is similar to rickets because it is caused by a defect in vitamin D metabolism by the body, but it affects mainly adults.
It is characterized by weakened bones and abnormal bone formation. Acromegaly is a bone condition caused by excess of growth hormone production by the body. Overgrown bones in the face, hands and feet characterize this disease. The most common cause of acromegaly is a benign tumor on the pituitary gland in the brain.
This disease affects the bone of the hip joint in children. The femoral head, which is the joint area on the long bone in the upper leg, deteriorates due to a lack of blood supply, causing pain and the inability to walk. Fibrous dysplasia results in excessive growth or swelling of bone due to abnormal cell development. There are several types of fibrous dysplasia that mainly affect the bones of the skull, face, ribs, upper arms, pelvis, thighs and shins.
Osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of bone, which can either be sudden and acute or chronic. Treatment may include antibiotics and in some cases, surgery to remove the infected bone tissue.