Vitamin D deficiency. INTRODUCTIONVitamin D plays an important role in many places throughout the body, including the development and calcification of the bones. Adequate exposure to sunlight and the use of dairy products with vitamin D have significantly reduced the incidence of vitamin D deficiency. However, vitamin D deficiency is still a common problem in many populations, particularly older adults. This topic reviews the major causes of vitamin D deficiency, including how it is diagnosed and treated, and safe ways to prevent vitamin D deficiency. WHAT IS VITAMIN D? Vitamin D is an oil- soluble vitamin that has several important functions in the body: ●It helps to absorb dietary calcium and phosphorus from the intestines.●It suppresses the release of parathyroid hormone, a hormone that causes bone resorption.
Through these actions, vitamin D keeps the calcium and phosphate levels in the blood normal, thereby promoting bone health. Vitamin D may have other benefits, such as improving muscle and immune function, but these areas require more research. Natural sources of vitamin D — Vitamin D is made in the skin under the influence of sunlight. The amount of sunlight needed to synthesize adequate amounts of vitamin D varies, depending upon the person's age, skin color, sun exposure, and underlying medical problems.
The production of vitamin D from the skin decreases with age. In addition, people who have darker skin need more sun exposure to produce adequate amounts of vitamin D, especially during the winter months. Another important source of vitamin D is foods, where it may occur naturally (in fatty fish, cod liver oil, and [to a lesser extent] eggs). In the United States, commercially fortified cow's milk is the largest source of dietary vitamin D, containing approximately 1. Free Virtual Dating Games. D per 8 ounces. Vitamin D intake can be estimated by multiplying the number of cups of milk consumed per day by 1.
D). In other parts of the world, cereals and bread products are often fortified with vitamin D. Although vitamin D is found in cod liver oil, some fish oils also contain high doses of vitamin A.
Vitamin C overdose/deficiency symptoms, optimal dosage, health benefits, side effects, DRI/RDA for adults, children, pregnancy, food sources. Symptoms of bone pain and muscle weakness can mean you have a vitamin D deficiency. However, for many people, the symptoms are subtle. Yet, even without symptoms, too. Low vitamin D status linked with lower limb and core injuries among NFL athletes. A new study found vitamin D deficiency was linked with an increased odds of lower. Vitamin B12 is essential for good health, but some people may not be getting enough. WebMD tells you about symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency and how it can be treated.
Excessive vitamin A intake can be associated with side effects, including liver damage and fractures. CAUSES OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCYThe main reasons for low levels of vitamin D are: ●Lack of vitamin D in the diet, often in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure●Inability to absorb vitamin D from the intestines●Inability to process vitamin D due to kidney or liver disease. Inadequate intake — Infants, children, and older adults are at risk for low vitamin D levels because of inadequate vitamin D intake. Human breast milk contains low levels of vitamin D, and most infant formulas do not contain adequate vitamin D.
Older adults often do not consume enough vitamin D rich foods, and even when they do, absorption may be limited. Inadequate sun exposure — Parents of infants and children are often advised to keep their child out of the sun, which reduces vitamin D synthesis from the skin. Exposure to the sun is not recommended as a source of vitamin D for infants and children, due to the potential long- term risks of skin cancer. See "Patient education: Sunburn (Beyond the Basics)".)Adults who have limited sun exposure are also at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, especially if their skin is dark. In addition, reduced amounts of vitamin D are made in the skin and stored in the body as we age. This is especially true in the winter months in some northern areas, such as Boston, Massachusetts and Edmonton, Alberta, where the skin virtually ceases to produce vitamin D between October and April.
In the summer months, the use of sunscreen limits vitamin D synthesis. Diseases or surgery that affect fat absorption — Certain diseases affect the body's ability to absorb adequate amounts of vitamin D through the intestinal tract. Examples of these include celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and cystic fibrosis.
Surgery that removes or bypasses portions of the stomach or intestines can also lead to low vitamin D levels. An example of this type of surgery is gastric bypass. See "Patient education: Weight loss surgery and procedures (Beyond the Basics)".)Kidney and liver disease — The liver and kidney have important enzymes that change vitamin D from sun- exposed skin or food to the biologically active form of vitamin D. People with chronic kidney and liver disease are at increased risk of low active vitamin D levels because they have decreased levels of these enzymes. Less common causes of vitamin D deficiency include familial or acquired diseases that impair the enzymes in the liver or kidney that create the biologically active form of the vitamin. This results in inadequate amounts of active vitamin D.
Signs and Symptoms You May Have a Vitamin D Deficiency. By Dr. Mercola. Vitamin D deficiency is incredibly common in the US, but many Americans mistakenly believe they aren't at risk because they consume vitamin- D- fortified foods (such as milk). There are very few foods that actually have therapeutic levels of vitamin D naturally and even fortified foods do not contain enough vitamin D to support your health needs. Despite its name, vitamin D is not a regular vitamin.
It's actually a steroid hormone that you are designed to obtain primarily through sun exposure, not via your diet. Just How Widespread Is Vitamin D Deficiency? Before the year 2. D deficient. But as the technology to measure vitamin D became inexpensive and widely available, more and more studies were done, and it became increasingly clear that vitamin D deficiency was absolutely rampant. For example, according to one of the leading vitamin D researchers, Dr. Michael Holick: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 3. US were vitamin D deficient - - and this is grossly underestimated as they used vitamin D levels that were not consistent with optimal health.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that 5. D Researchers such as Dr. Holick estimate that 5.
D deficiency and insufficiency. Researchers have also noted that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in adults of all ages who always wear sun protection (which blocks vitamin D production) or limit their outdoor activities. People with increased skin pigmentation (such as those whose ancestors are from Africa, the Middle East, or India) are also at risk, as are the elderly. It's estimated that over 9. US senior citizens may be deficient in vitamin D, not only because they tend to spend a lot of time indoors but also because they produce less in response to sun exposure (a person over the age of 7. D than a younger person with the same sun exposure). Signs You May Be Vitamin D Deficient.
The only way to know for sure if you're vitamin D deficient is via blood testing. However, there are some signs and symptoms to be aware of as well. If any of the following apply to you, you should get your vitamin D levels tested sooner rather than later. You Have Darker Skin.
African Americans are at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency, because if you have dark skin, you may need as much as 1. D as a person with pale skin! As Dr. Holick explained, your skin pigment acts as a natural sunscreen, so the more pigment you have, the more time you'll need to spend in the sun to make adequate amounts of vitamin D. You Feel "Blue"Serotonin, the brain hormone associated with mood elevation, rises with exposure to bright light and falls with decreased sun exposure. In 2. 00. 6, scientists evaluated the effects of vitamin D on the mental health of 8.
D were 1. 1 times more prone to be depressed than those who received healthy doses. You're 5. 0 or Older.
As mentioned, as you get older your skin doesn't make as much vitamin D in response to sun exposure. At the same time, your kidneys become less efficient at converting vitamin D into the form used by your body and older adults tend to spend more time indoors (i. D). 4. You're Overweight or Obese (or Have a Higher Muscle Mass)Vitamin D is a fat- soluble, hormone- like vitamin, which means body fat acts as a "sink" by collecting it. If you're overweight or obese, you're therefore likely going to need more vitamin D than a slimmer person - - and the same holds true for people with higher body weights due to muscle mass. Your Bones Ache. According to Dr.
Holick, many who see their doctor for aches and pains, especially in combination with fatigue, end up being misdiagnosed as having fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome. Many of these symptoms are classic signs of vitamin D deficiency osteomalacia, which is different from the vitamin D deficiency that causes osteoporosis in adults," he says. What's happening is that the vitamin D deficiency causes a defect in putting calcium into the collagen matrix into your skeleton.
As a result, you have throbbing, aching bone pain."6. Head Sweating. According to Dr. Holick, one of the first, classic signs of vitamin D deficiency is a sweaty head. In fact, physicians used to ask new mothers about head sweating in their newborns for this very reason.
Excessive sweating in newborns due to neuromuscular irritability is still described as a common, early symptom of vitamin D deficiency. You Have Gut Trouble. Remember, vitamin D is a fat- soluble vitamin, which means if you have a gastrointestinal condition that affects your ability to absorb fat, you may have lower absorption of fat- soluble vitamins like vitamin D as well. This includes gut conditions like Crohn's, celiac and non- celiac gluten sensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. Optimizing Your Vitamin D Levels May Prevent Cancer, Heart Disease, and More.
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