Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: A unifying theory. Until recently, claims for the psychological benefits of physical exercise have tended to precede supportive evidence.
Acutely, emotional effects of exercise remain confusing, both positive and negative effects being reported. Results of cross- sectional and longitudinal studies are more consistent in indicating that aerobic exercise training has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects and protects against harmful consequences of stress. Details of each of these effects remain unclear. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects have been demonstrated most clearly in subclinical disorder, and clinical applications remain to be exploited. Cross- sectional studies link exercise habits to protection from harmful effects of stress on physical and mental health, but causality is not clear. Nevertheless, the pattern of evidence suggests the theory that exercise training recruits a process which confers enduring resilience to stress.
This view allows the effects of exercise to be understood in terms of existing psychobiological knowledge, and it can thereby provide the theoretical base that is needed to guide future research in this area. Clinically, exercise training continues to offer clinical psychologists a vehicle for nonspecific therapeutic social and psychological processes.
It also offers a specific psychological treatment that may be particularly effective for patients for whom more conventional psychological interventions are less acceptable.
Sleeping behaviour: Sleep- wake system and psychosocial development. March 2. 01. 3, 2nd ed. Introduction. The maturation of the sleep- wake system and the consolidation of nocturnal sleep is a very prominent and rapid process in early childhood. This process is influenced by the child’s psychosocial context.
Furthermore, the child’s sleep patterns or sleep disruptions have significant effects on the well- being of the parents. Subject. Sleep is affected by the child’s psychosocial setting and has a significant impact on child development. The bi- directional relationships between sleep and psychosocial facets of the developing child constitute an important topic for child- care professionals.
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Panic attacks may be a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Symptoms and signs include palpitations, shaking, and chest pain. Get the facts on causes and medications used. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. To grow and succeed, children need to engage in activities that promote healthy development. Overuse of technology is resulting in physical, mental, social and. Aas, H., Klepp, K., Laberg, J. C., & Aaro, L. E. (1995). Predicting adolescents' intentions to drink alcohol: Outcome expectancies and self-efficacy. Project Name Investigators Accession Number Project Summary Sample Size Scanner Type License; Whole-brain background-suppressed pCASL MRI with 1D-accelerated 3D RARE. Find patient medical information for CAFFEINE on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it.
The Psychology Questions & Answers page is a knowledge sharing resource where anybody can ask or answer a question relating to the fascinating world of psychology.
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It is crucial for professionals to identify factors that could facilitate children’s sleep, and to be sensitive to the impact poor or insufficient sleep can have on child development. Problems. Sleep- wake patterns evolve rapidly during early development and are considered to be one of the major developmental or health concerns during this period. Surveys indicate that 2. High rates of poor sleep have also been documented in preschool and kindergarten children. The high prevalence of sleep problems and their potential adverse effects on psychosocial development are the main research and clinical issues in early childhood. Research Context. A variety of research methods have been employed to study the relationship between sleep and psychosocial environment and development.
Sleep in infants and young children has been studied using methods such as polysomnography,2. Most studies have been cross- sectional. Longitudinal studies in this field are extremely rare. Furthermore, most studies were correlative in nature and therefore preclude causal interpretations. Some experimental studies on the effects of sleep manipulation have been performed in older (school- age) children. Key Research Questions. The extensive research in this field can be divided into three main research questions: How do psychosocial factors affect the evolving sleep- wake patterns of the child? What is the impact of poor or insufficient sleep on the child’s psychosocial development?
Which are the most effective psychosocial interventions for improving children’s sleep? Recent Research Results. A. Psychosocial effects on children's sleep. Parental characteristics such as personality, psychopathology, employment and education have been repeatedly associated with sleep in early childhood. Parent- child bedtime interactions have been consistently shown to be linked to children’s sleep. It has been demonstrated that parental presence and active involvement in soothing the child to sleep are associated with an increase in reported sleep problems. Furthermore, most behavioural intervention methods for early childhood sleep problems are based on withdrawal of excessive parental involvement in the child’s process of falling asleep or resuming sleep following a night- waking.
Another psychosocial factor that has received wide attention vis- à- vis sleep in young children is the issue of co- sleeping. Co- sleeping can represent a culturally or socially acceptable choice or a parental response to the child’s sleep difficulties. In most studies, co- sleeping was associated with more frequent night- wakings and complaints about sleep,4.
A fierce debate exists regarding the advantages and disadvantages of co- sleeping. Among the more serious disadvantages of co- sleeping is the risk for very young babies to be suffocated or injured in the parental bed. Sleep is also associated with stress and trauma in early childhood. For instance, short- term separation from the mother could result in sleep disruptions.
However, contrary to common belief, not all stressors lead to disrupted sleep and there are studies that suggest that sometimes escape to sleep is the preferred mode of bio- behavioural regulation of stress. Flat Head In Adults. B. The impact of poor or insufficient sleep.
Years of research in animals and humans (mostly with adults or older children) have demonstrated that poor or insufficient sleep leads to compromised alertness, cognitive deficits and compromised physiological functioning. The research on this topic in young children is very limited and mostly of a correlative nature.
Thus, poor sleep has been associated with difficult temperament. However, other studies have failed to find such relationships. A recent study of preschool children found that disrupted sleep patterns predicted less optimal adjustment in preschool. Studies of school- age children have demonstrated links between poor or restricted sleep and compromised neurobehavioural functioning. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that sleep- related physiological phenomena (e. The long- term effects of poor or insufficient sleep are not known. It has been suggested that sleep deprivation in early childhood during critical periods of brain maturation may lead to chronic adverse effects on psychosocial development.
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Major Depressive Disorder Archives - Psych. UDepression screening within three months after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event (such as a heart attack) identifies more than 9. However, the screenings have a high rate of false positives; they identify 5. Although depression is common among people following an ACS event, the evidence base is insufficient to determine if treating the depression improves cardiac outcomes.
The evidence based indicated that combining cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressants may improve depression outcomes. These findings were reported in “Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening and Treatment of Post–Acute Coronary Syndrome Depression: A Systematic Review” by John W. Easy Unique Halloween Costumes For Adults on this page. Williams, Jr., M. D., M. H. Sc.; Jason A.
Nieuwsma, Ph. D.; Natasha Namdari, M. D.; Jeffrey B. Washam, Pharm. D.; Giselle Raitz, M. D.; James A. Blumenthal, Ph. D.; Wei Jiang, M. D.; Roshini Yapa, M. B. B. S.; Amanda J.
Mc. Broom, Ph. D.; Kathryn Lallinger, M. S. L. S.; Robyn Schmidt, B. A.; Andrzej S. Kosinski, Ph. D.; and Gillian D. Sanders, Ph. D. The researchers conducted a literature review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening instruments in adult consumers within three months of an ACS, and to determine the safety and effectiveness of drug treatment, and non- drug treatment for this group. For this study, ACS refers to clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia and includes unstable angina, non–ST- segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST- segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The analysis is based on English- language studies which evaluated interventions for treating post- ACS consumers identified with depression that were published between January 1, 2.
August 1. 5, 2. 01. The goal was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening instruments in adult consumers within three months of an ACS, and to determine the safety and effectiveness of drug treatment, and non- drug treatment for this group. Six studies reported outcomes for four depression screening tools used with people who had experienced an ACS event. These tools include: Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI- II)Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); including HADS with Anxiety Subscale (HADS- A), and HADS with Depression Subscale (HADS- D)Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): versions 2, 9, and 1. Version 2 (PHQ- 2, PHQ- 9, and PHQ- 1.
A total of 1,7. 55 consumers were represented in these studies. Additional findings of the analysis were as follows: While the four depression screening tools had a low rate of false negatives (they missed less than 3% of those with depression); they had a high rate of false positives. The BDI- II has similar screening performance characteristics (9. ACS group as in other populations. The BDI- II is slightly more sensitive than HADS, but the two were similar in specificity.
One or two specific items from the BDI- II and PHQ screening tools may be just as accurate for diagnostic screening as the entire tools. Fourteen articles representing four studies examined the comparative safety and effectiveness of pharmacologic and non- pharmacologic treatments and enhanced care delivery approaches to usual care for the treatment of depression in people following an ACS event. The researchers found that enhanced care interventions, which integrate psychiatric treatment into other clinical settings, improve depression symptoms, although not necessarily cardiac outcomes. For patients with severe depression symptoms or only partial response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a combination therapy of CBT with antidepressant medications improves depression symptoms and mental health outcomes, although not cardiac outcomes.
For more information, contact: Alison Hunt, Media Contact, Office of Communications, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5. Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 2.
Email: alison. hunt@ahrq. The following is a summary of Kohler- Forsberg, O, Buttenschon, H, and Tansey, K. Association between C- reactive protein (CRP) with depression symptom severity and specific depressive symptoms in major depresion. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2. Background. A link between inflammation and depression has been established. Increased levels of the pro- inflammatory marker C- reactive protein (CRP) have repeatedly been associated with the development of depression and worse response to antidepressants including treatment resistance. Significant gender differences based on the inflammatory profile have been found in bipolar disorder psychopathology and in depressive symptoms among individuals without clinical depression.
Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CRP levels and overall depression symptom severity among individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) of at least moderate severity and to investigate the associations with specific psychopathology and to include gender interaction analyses.