The Lancashire Grid for Learning Website. Links, resources and support for curriculum areas.
Information, projects and resources to support Primary English. Information and resources to support Primary Mathematics. Lancashire Professional Development Service and other helpful links. Information of local and nationally run projects and initiatives.
The Struggling Reader. As a result of new technology, neuroscientists are learning more and more about how the brain operates and what causes dyslexia.
SURVIVAL GUIDE. by. Dr. Glen Johnson. Licensed Psychologist. Clinical Neuropsychologist. 5123 North Royal Drive. Traverse City, MI 49684. Phone (231) 929-7358. 1. Active-Learning Theories (constructivism.) 2. Teaching Strategies for Effective Instruction. What is active learning, and when does it happen?
Because reading is a complex brain activity, a lot can go wrong as children develop into readers. Each potential problem area must be examined when reading difficulties occur so that the right solutions can be provided. Because reading begins with visual input, any vision problems can inhibit the ability to process print effectively. Some poor readers may have subtle sensory deficits in visual processing, such as poor visual acuity or slower- than- normal eye movements (Berninger, 2. In addition, any type of hearing impairment, such as chronic ear infections during the preschool years, can harm the language development of young children.
- · Highlighting Is a Waste of Time: The Best and Worst Learning Techniques. Some of the most common strategies for retaining knowledge are the least effective.
- Literacy Strategies for Grades 4–12. by Karen Tankersley. Table of Contents. Chapter 1. The Struggling Reader The Brain and Reading. Wolfe and Nevills (2004.
Those who cannot process sound quickly enough can have trouble distinguishing similar consonant sounds (such as p or b). Training in sound- symbol correspondence and aural acuity will help these children improve their ability to process the sounds they hear and read.
A deficit in the language systems of the brain seems to be the problem that most frequently affects struggling readers. There are three main areas in the brain devoted to reading. The inferior frontal gyrus, or Broca's area, situated at the front of the brain and responsible for articulating speech; The parieto- temporal area, situated at the back of the brain and responsible for analyzing and sounding out parts of words; and. The occipito- temporal area, also situated at the back of the brain and responsible for synthesizing all information related to words and sound, and thus for recognizing words instantly. Signs Of Autism Spectrum Disorders In Adults here.
According to Shaywitz and Shaywitz (2. MRI) reveals striking differences in the ways that dyslexic and nondyslexic readers process what they read: Whereas nondyslexic readers experience activity in the left Broca's area and the left parieto- temporal and occipito- temporal areas of the brain, dyslexic readers display over- activity in the frontal area, but very little activity in the left rear areas of the brain that nondyslexic readers use. These findings suggest that the brains of dyslexic readers try to compensate for an inability to use the left rear parieto- temporal and occipito- temporal areas by over- activating Broca's area on both sides of the brain. Although the dyslexic readers often learn to read, the task was slow and laborious, and the patterns of over- reliance on the inferior frontal gyrus continued into adulthood.
Exciting new research is now changing the long- held belief that a child with dyslexia is destined to become a dyslexic adult. In a study by Shaywitz et al.
This explicit tutoring, provided by specially trained, certified teachers, was given in addition to regular classroom reading instruction. After eight months (1. Scans of their brains showed new activity in the left rear parieto- temporal and occipito- temporal areas that had not been present prior to the tutoring. One year following the study, the students were reading accurately and fluently without any additional tutoring, and f.
MRI scans revealed that all three left- sided areas of their brains were now much more activated as in a normal reader. A control group that had received nonphonological reading instruction did not show reading improvement or changes in brain function.
This exciting study shows that dyslexia may be affected through appropriate instruction at an early age. The Gap Between Good and Poor Readers. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) found that children who are read to three or more times per week are more likely to know their letters, count to 2.
Nord, Lennon, Liu, & Chandler, 1. The center also found that white children were read to more often than black or Latino children (NCES, 2. According to Yarosz and Barnett (2.
Juel (1. 98. 8) reports that by the end of 1st grade, students proficient at reading will have seen an average of 1. It is no wonder that, given half as much practice as their more proficient peers, struggling readers lost ground in decoding, automaticity, fluency, and vocabulary growth. The problem was not that the children were not developing skills—they were—but rather that they had fallen behind their classmates and were never able to catch up. By high school, many of these students will have fallen behind their peers by as much as four years (Shaywitz, 2. Sometimes students who make adequate progress in the early grades begin to struggle again around the beginning of 4th grade—what teachers refer to as “the 4th grade slump.” Chall, Jacobs, and Baldwin (1. The researchers suggest that reasons for this could include the appearance of fewer picture clues in 4th grade texts, the abundance of new vocabulary words, and an expectation that students absorb information from the text rather than simply read for plot.
Enhancing School Success with Mnemonic Strategies LD Topics. By: Margo A. Mastropieri and Thomas E. Scruggs. A few years ago, we revisited an inner- city middle school where- about a year before- we had conducted an investigation on the effectiveness of mnemonic techniques in helping students with mild cognitive disabilities remember U. S. states and capitals.
As we entered the classroom, Crystal, a student classified as mildly mentally handicapped, recognized one of our graduate students immediately."Hey! I remember you!" she exclaimed enthusiastically. You were here last year - you taught us states and capitals!
I remember, go ahead, ask me one!""Well, uh," replied our colleague, taken slightly by surprise, "How about…Florida? What's the capital of Florida?""That's too easy!" she said, smiling. Here it is: Florida, the keyword is flower - the flower is on a television set, and television is the keyword for Tallahassee!"In this scenario, a student classified as mentally retarded effectively remembered information she had been taught 1 year previously. Even more impressive was the fact that she had not reviewed or rehearsed this information with any teacher since the last time we had seen her! As startling as this scenario is, it underscores something we have been witnessing for many years: the incredible power of mnemonic strategies to increase dramatically the amount of information students remember, even students with learning problems. In this article, we describe the need for effective memory strategies for school learning.
Next, we provide a brief description of what mnemonic strategies are - and what they are not. Following that, we describe how you can use these powerful learning tools to enhance the school success of your own students. The need for mnemonic strategies. According to the Sixteenth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (U. S. Department of Education, 1.
As many as 7. 8. 9% of students with learning disabilities spend all or most of their educational time in general education classrooms. On the secondary level, students with disabilities are included in content- area classrooms, such as English, science, and social studies classes.
Largely, ability to succeed in these classrooms determines their level of success in school. What factors determine whether a student will succeed in secondary content- area classrooms? What Is Intussusception In Adults.
Pumam (1. 99. 2b) surveyed 7th- and 1. Kansas, Indiana, and Florida, and reported that an average of nearly half of a student's report card grades depended on test performance.
Clearly, such factors as attendance, punctuality, participation, and homework completion are also important. However, teachers made it clear that test scores were the single most important factor in report card grades. Teachers gave an average of 1.
Clearly, students' academic survival is tied very closely with performance on academic tests. In addition to the number of tests teachers give, Pumam (1. He found that the overwhelming majority of test questions students were asked required factual recall: The majority of questions on tests administered by main- stream secondary classroom teachers required the student to recall a specific fact - 2. A sample question that asked for a specific fact was "Who discovered America?" Other possible responses, such as conclusion, sequence, opinion, discrimination, compare and contrast, purpose, correct an example, and summary, appeared about one per test.
Thus it can be seen that memory for factual information is absolutely essential for success in school, particularly at the secondary level. Unfortunately, it is also true that students with learning disabilities and other learning problems have been consistently shown to have particular difficulties remembering academic content (e. Cooney & Swanson, 1. Our work in the area of so 7 mnemonic (memory- enhancing) strategies has been devoted to finding ways of increasing the amount of content- area information students are able to remember. What Is Baby Fat In Adults.
This article provides information on the utility, and effectiveness, of mnemonic strategies in enhancing memory for school learning. What mnemonic strategies are. Mnemonic strategies are systematic procedures for enhancing memory. Their particular use is in developing better ways to take in (encode) information so that it will be much easier to remember (retrieve).
Although there are retrieval strategies that can be employed to attempt to retrieve information that has been forgotten, research has demonstrated that the way we encode information when we first study facilitates memory better. The particular task in developing mnemonic strategies is to find a way to relate new information to information students already have locked in long- term memory. If we can make a firm enough connection, the memory will last a very long time.