• Surplus People Project (South Africa), 1983. Forced removals in South Africa: Volume 1[-5] of the Surplus People Project report, Pietermaritzburg: The Surplus.
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South Africa facts, information, pictures. LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENTTOPOGRAPHYCLIMATEFLORA AND FAUNAENVIRONMENTPOPULATIONMIGRATIONETHNIC GROUPSLANGUAGESRELIGIONSTRANSPORTATIONHISTORYGOVERNMENTPOLITICAL PARTIESLOCAL GOVERNMENTJUDICIAL SYSTEMARMED FORCESINTERNATIONAL COOPERATIONECONOMYINCOMELABORAGRICULTUREANIMAL HUSBANDRYFISHINGFORESTRYMININGENERGY AND POWERINDUSTRYSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYDOMESTIC TRADEFOREIGN TRADEBALANCE OF PAYMENTSBANKING AND SECURITIESINSURANCEPUBLIC FINANCETAXATIONCUSTOMS AND DUTIESFOREIGN INVESTMENTECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTHEALTHHOUSINGEDUCATIONLIBRARIES AND MUSEUMSMEDIAORGANIZATIONSTOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATIONFAMOUS SOUTH AFRICANSDEPENDENCIESBIBLIOGRAPHYRepublic of South Africa. Republiek van Suid- Afrika. CAPITAL: Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein (judicial)FLAG: The national flag, adopted in 1. Bands of red, white, green, white, and blue appear horizontally. ANTHEM: Two anthems are currently in use: the official anthem, Die Stem van Suid- Afrika (The Call of South Africa), and Nkosi Sikelel' Afrika (God Bless Africa), a hymn adopted by most liberation groups. MONETARY UNIT: The South African rand (r) is a paper currency of 1.
It is used throughout the South African monetary area. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 1. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is in use. HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Republic Day, 3.
May; Kruger Day, 1. October; Day of the Vow, 1. December; Christmas, 2.
December; Goodwill Day, 2. December. Movable religious holidays include Good Friday and Ascension; Family Day is a movable secular holiday. TIME: 2 pm = noon GMT.
The area of South Africa is 1,2. Comparatively, the area occupied by South Africa is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Texas. Considered as a whole, South Africa extends 1,8. It is bounded on the n by Botswana and Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), on the ne by Mozambique and Swaziland, on the e by the Indian Ocean, on the s by the confluence of the Indian and Atlantic oceans, on the w by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the nw by Namibia. South Africa also controls two small islands, Prince Edward and Marion, which lie some 1,9. Cape Town. South Africa's capital city, Pretoria, is located in the northeastern part of the country.
South Africa has a mean altitude of about 1,2. Parts of Johannesburg are more than 1,8. There are three major zones: the marginal regions, which range in width from 8. Cape folded belt, and western plateau slopes; a vast saucer- shaped interior plateau, separated from the marginal zone by the Great Escarpment; and the Kalahari Basin, only the southern part of which projects into north- central South Africa. The land rises steadily from west to east to the Drakensberg Mountains (part of the Great Escarpment), the tallest of which is Mt. Injasuti (3,4. 08 m/1. Lesotho. The coastal belt of the west and south ranges between 1.
Cape. North of the coastal belt stretch the Little and the Great Karoo highlands, which are bounded by mountains, are semiarid to arid, and merge into sandy wastes that ultimately join the arid Kalahari. The high grass prairie, or veld, of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal is famous for its deposits of gold and silver; other minerals are found in the Transvaal's bush veld. Involuntary Head Movement In Adults. From the Drakensberg, the land falls toward the Indian Ocean in the rolling hills and valleys of Natal, which are covered with rich vegetation and, near the coast, subtropical plants, including sugarcane. The two most important rivers draining the interior plateau are the Orange (with its tributary the Vaal), which flows into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Limpopo, which empties into the Indian Ocean through Mozambique.
Of the fast- flowing rivers with steeply graded courses that produce spectacular waterfalls, the largest is the Tugela, which rises in the Mont- aux- Sources and flows swiftly to the Indian Ocean. South Africa lies almost wholly within the southern temperate zone, and its climate is more equable than that of corresponding northern latitudes because of its surrounding waters. Temperature differentials between east and west coasts stem from the influences, respectively, of the warm Mozambique (Agulhas) Current and the cold Benguela Current. The average daily minimum temperature at Durban, on the east coast, ranges from 1. Symptoms Of Meningitis In Adults Nhs there. July to 2. 1°c (7.
February; on the west coast, at Port Nolloth, the range is from 7°c (4. Temperatures are cooler in the highlands: at Johannesburg, the average daily minimum is 4°c (3. June and July and 1.
January. On the high veld there are sharp differences. Rainfall is unpredictable in large parts of the country, and prolonged droughts are a serious restriction on farming in such areas. While the mean annual rainfall is 4. Much of South Africa gets its rain in the summer months, but the western coastal belt is a winter rain area. Along the Cape south coast, rain falls during both seasons.
Forced Removals in South Africa. Forced removals refer to the moving of people from their homes against their will. This may not always involve physical threat or force, but sometimes coercion or other tactics against which the evictees are not in a position to challenge are employed[i]. Examples of the types of tactics used to move people against their will from their homes will be illustrated further below. South Africa has experienced a long history of forcible removal of people as the result of racist legislation.
It is incredibly difficult to calculate precise numbers of people who experienced forced removal in the country It is equally difficult to pinpoint a specific origin for the legislation, that segregated South Africa’s cities into racially constructed group areas. Earlier discriminatory laws were often used as platforms for building new ones during the apartheid era,[ii] so to understand those which famously occurred under the Group Areas Act (and heavily influence urban landscapes today), it is important to consider the legislation preceding that which occurred under apartheid rule.
It is also worth noting that economic conditions in South Africa today have seen forced removals continue across the country.[iii]While apartheid saw the rigorous implementation of removals on a massive scale, segregation and forced removals occurred before the National Party came into power and introduced apartheid legislation[iv]. Examples of pre- apartheid legislation include the 1. Native Land Act , the 1. Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance 2. Native Trust Land Act.[v]These items of legislation served to limit the freedom of all people not classified as White)living in South Africa by controlling their movement, limiting their power to own land or businesses and exploiting their labour to the benefit of White South Africans[vi]. Some of apartheid’s most oppressive legislation (such as the Group Areas Act) was built upon these earlier regulations that sought to control the movements and rights of all who were not White (for example, the 1.
Areas Reservation Bill sought to restrict Indians).[vii]However, it was the Group Areas Act of 1. July 1. 95. 0 to its repeal in 1.
Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act. For a concise overview of segregationist legislation dating back to 1.
South African History Online’s timeline on segregationist legislation. Meeting Conference Convention Forum Expo December 2009. Pre- cursors to the Group Areas Act“You can’t say there is an unfair division of land, because land was divided by history… we’ve pegged it down and that’s final.” – The Deputy Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, 1.
While the Group Areas Act legislated the forced segregation of people according to the ethnic groupings they ‘belonged to’ (these identities were assigned to people by the apartheid government). Segregation existed long before apartheid was implemented and was already instituted by colonial authorities through various urban planning efforts.[ix]The earliest evidence of forced removal on this landscape dates to the seventeenth century when San and Khoi inhabitants were dispossessed at the Cape by European settlers under the leadership of Jan Van Riebeeck, when the Dutch East India Company elected to create a permanent settlement at the Cape. While the dispossession of indigenous people during the time of early European settlement differed in nature to forced removals under the Group Areas Act, a similarity is reflected in the entrenched attitudes of those in power many centuries later, resulting in large- scale forced removals throughout the country.[x] Colonial authorities, having established control and discrimination by White people over all those who were not classified as White, passed legislation that reflected the efforts of the authorities to retain this control, resulting in people being forced from one location to another.
Examples include the series of acts promulgated in the early 1. Asian South Africans who saw their rights to trade within the areas referred to as Asiatic Bazaars removed, as legislation became more and more discriminatory toward them. See South African History Online’s Timeline of Anti- Indian legislation for a closer look at this series of discriminatory laws. Other attempts to legally segregate the populace by ethnic distinction included a long list of discriminatory laws that can be traced back as far as the nineteenth century. Legislation such as the 1.
Native Affairs Act, the 1. Class Areas Bill, the 1. Slums Act and many more, led up to the eventual enforcement of separate 'Group Areas' from 1. A good example of one of the ways that legislation forced people unjustly from their homes is the anti- squatting legislation in 1. Driven by White farmers to fulfil needs for cheap labour, they successfully lobbied for legislation. This forced cash- tenants (people who rented their land from farmers) to become labour tenants (people who worked for 3- 9 months per year without pay on farms in exchange for being allowed to live there).