The American Heart Association explains the congenital heart defect ventricular septal defect, VSD in children and adults.
Treatment of patent foramen ovale (PFO) for secondary stroke prevention. INTRODUCTIONOptions for prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke and a patent foramen ovale (PFO) include medical therapy with antithrombotic agents and closure of the defect by percutaneous device or rarely using a surgical approach.
This topic will review the medical and interventional options for secondary stroke prevention in patients with an embolic cryptogenic stroke associated with a PFO. Cryptogenic stroke is reviewed in detail separately. See "Cryptogenic stroke".)The risk of stroke related to atrial septal abnormalities and indications for treating atrial septal defects in adults are discussed elsewhere.
See "Atrial septal abnormalities (PFO, ASD, and ASA) and risk of cerebral emboli in adults" and "Indications for closure and medical management of atrial septal defects in adults".)APPROACH TO TREATMENTClosure of a PFO may prevent paradoxical embolism and thereby reduce the risk of recurrent transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke. While some results are conflicting, evidence from randomized controlled trials on balance now suggests that PFO closure is effective in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke for select patients with cryptogenic stroke (algorithm 1). See 'Our approach' below and 'Evidence' below.)Our approach — Mounting evidence suggests that percutaneous PFO closure is more effective for preventing recurrent ischemic stroke than antiplatelet therapy alone for highly selected patients (age ≤6. PFO [1- 4]. (See 'Percutaneous closure of PFO' below.).
Literature review current through. This topic last updated. Jan 0. 5, 2. 01. 8.
Therapeutic options for prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with an atrial septal abnormality, including patent foramen ovale (PFO), small ostium secundum. Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) is a cardiac diagnostic procedure in which a modified endoscope, with an ultrasound transducer, is passed into the esophagus. Anatomical Differences Between Neonates And Adults.
Thank you for registering with Blue Cross of Idaho. If you are an Individual or Family Member, please register here. If you are a Medicare Advantage or Medicare. Background There are two approaches to the treatment of atrial fibrillation: one is cardioversion and treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs to maintain sinus rhythm. Pulmonary Hypertension Online Medical Reference - covering Definition through Treatment. Co-uthored by Raed A. Dweik, Gustavo A. Heresi, Omar A. Minai, and Adriano R.