Dhole - Wikipedia. This article is about the species of wild dog. For H. P. Lovecraft's fictional monster, see Dhole (Cthulhu Mythos). The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia.
Other English names for the species include Asiatic wild dog,Indian wild dog,whistling dog, red dog, and mountain wolf. It is genetically close to species within the genus. Canis,(Fig. 1. During the Pleistocene, the dhole ranged throughout Asia, Europe and North America but became restricted to its historical range 1. The dhole is a highly social animal, living in large clans without rigid dominance hierarchies[1. Such clans usually consist of 1. It is a diurnal pack hunter which preferentially targets medium and large sized ungulates.[1.
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In tropical forests, the dhole competes with tigers and leopards, targeting somewhat different prey species, but still with substantial dietary overlap.[1. It is listed as Endangered by the IUCN as populations are decreasing and are estimated at fewer than 2,5. Factors contributing to this decline include habitat loss, loss of prey, competition with other species, persecution due to livestock predation and disease transfer from domestic dogs.Etymology and naming. Captive Indian wild dogs resting.
The etymology of "dhole" is unclear. The possible earliest written use of the word in English occurred in 1. Thomas Williamson, who encountered the animal in Ramghur district. He stated that dhole was a common local name for the species.[1. Examples Of Opening Welcome For Womens Outreach Meeting.
In 1. 82. 7, Charles Hamilton Smith claimed that it was derived from a language spoken in 'various parts of the East'.[1. Flat Head In Adults. Two years later, Smith connected this word with Turkish: deli ‘mad, crazy’, and erroneously compared the Turkish word with Old Saxon: dol and Dutch: dol (cfr. English: dull; German: toll),[1. Proto- Germanic *dwalaz ‘foolish, stupid’.[1. Richard Lydekker wrote nearly 8. The Merriam- Webster Dictionary theorises that it may have come from the Kannada: tōḷa (‘wolf’).[1.
Local and indigenous namesDiscovery, taxonomy, and evolutionA Tiger Hunted by Wild Dogs (1. Samuel Howitt: This is one of the first illustrations of the species, featured in Thomas Williamson's Oriental Field Sports. The depiction, though, is based on Williamson's description of the animal as resembling the Indian pariah dog. The species was first described in literature in 1. Pesteref, who encountered dholes during his travels in far eastern Russia. He described the animal as being a regular pack hunter of Alpine ibex, and of bearing many similarities with the golden jackal. It was given the binomial name.
Canis alpinus in 1. Peter Pallas, who described its range as encompassing the upper levels of Udskoi Ostrog in Amurland, towards the eastern side and in the region of the upper Lena River, though he wrote that it also occurred around the Yenisei River, and that it occasionally crossed into China.[2.
This northern Russian range reported by this "nearly impeccable" author Pallas, during the 1. The British naturalist Brian Hodgson gave the dhole the binomial name Canis primaevus and proposed that it was the progenitor of the domestic dog.[2. Hodgson later took note of the dhole's physical distinctiveness from the genus Canis and assigned it to a new genus Cuon.[3. Illustration (1. 85.
Leopold von Schrenck, one of the first accurate depictions of the species, based on a single skin purchased in the village of Dshare on the Amur[2. The first study on the origins of the species was conducted by paleontologist Erich Thenius, who concluded that the dhole was a post- Pleistocene descendant of a golden jackal- like ancestor.[3.
The earliest known member of the genus Cuon is the Chinese Cuon majori of the Villafranchian period. It resembled Canis in its physical form more than the modern species, which has greatly reduced molars, whose cusps have developed into sharply trenchant points.
By the Middle Pleistocene, C. C. alpinus itself arose during the late Middle Pleistocene, by which point the transformation of the lower molar into a single cusped, slicing tooth had been completed. Late Middle Pleistocene dholes were virtually indistinguishable from their modern descendants, save for their greater size, which closely approached that of the grey wolf. The dhole became extinct in much of Europe during the late Würm period,[3. Holocene in the Iberian Peninsula.[3. Riparo Fredian in northern Italy[3. The vast Pleistocene range of this species also included numerous islands in Asia that this species no longer inhabits, such as Sri Lanka, Borneo, and possibly Palawan in the Philippines.[3.
The fossil record indicates that the species also occurred in North America, with remains being found in Beringia and Mexico.[4. The dhole's distinctive morphology has been a source of much confusion in determining the species' systematic position among the Canidae.
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