Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance)Represents 8. Usually develops in adults over the age of 4.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative.
Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds. For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer. Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. What happens with type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years).
During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pancreas wear themselves out, so that by the time someone is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, they have lost 5. This means type 2 diabetes is a combination of ineffective insulin and not enough insulin. When people refer to type 2 diabetes as a progressive condition they are referring to the ongoing destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas.
Objectives To summarise evidence on the association between white rice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes and to quantify the potential dose-response relation. Figure 1 Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among 12,550 Adults According to the Presence or Absence of Hypertension and Antihypertensive Drug Treatment. The things you've wanted to know about type 2 diabetes are all in one place. Learn more about the symptoms, foods to avoid, and lifestyle management.
Initially, type 2 diabetes can often be managed with healthy eating and regular physical activity. Over time most people with type 2 diabetes will also need tablets and many will eventually require insulin. It is important to note that this is the natural progression of the condition, and taking tablets or insulin as soon as they are required can result in fewer long- term complications. What causes type 2 diabetes? Diabetes runs in the family. If you have a family member with diabetes, you have a genetic disposition to the condition. While people may have a strong genetic disposition towards type 2 diabetes, the risk is greatly increased if people display a number of modifiable lifestyle factors including high blood pressure, overweight or obesity.
People are at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes if they: have a family history of diabetes are older (over 5. Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander background are over 3. Pacific Island, Indian subcontinent or Chinese cultural background are a woman who has given birth to a child over 4. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Type 2 diabetes in children is a chronic disease that affects the way your child's body processes sugar (glucose). It's important to manage your child's diabetes. · Risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) were not formally established until the initial findings of the Framingham Heart Study in the early 1960s.
Check your risk – answer 1. Read our section on preventing type 2 diabetes. Symptoms. Many people with type 2 diabetes display no symptoms. As type 2 diabetes is commonly (but not always) diagnosed at a later age, sometimes signs are dismissed as a part of ‘getting older’. In some cases, by the time type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the complications of diabetes may already be present. Symptoms include: Being excessively thirsty Passing more urine Feeling tired and lethargic Always feeling hungry Having cuts that heal slowly Itching, skin infections Blurred vision Gradually putting on weight Mood swings Headaches Feeling dizzy Leg cramps.
Int. J. Med. Sci. 2014, Vol. 11 http:// 1187 also therapeutic targets for the extensively used pharmaceuticals of T2DM, for example, KCNJ11 and. Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. It mainly occurs in people aged over 40. How to Avoid Type 2 Diabetes. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes has skyrocketed to such an extent that it is now viewed as an epidemic in the.
Managing Type 2 Diabetes. While there is currently no cure for type 2 diabetes, the condition can be managed through lifestyle modifications and medication. Type 2 diabetes is progressive and needs to be managed effectively to prevent complications. If you have recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or have a family member with type 2 diabetes, view information on managing type 2 diabetes.
Two- Year Moderate Alcohol Intervention in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Annals of Internal Medicine. From Ben- Gurion University of the Negev and Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel; Nuclear Research Center Negev, Dimona, Israel; Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden; University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; and Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Acknowledgment: The authors thank the CASCADE participants for their consistent cooperation. They thank Harel Segal from Nuclear Research Center Negev; Dr. Lena Novak, Dr. Michael Friger, Dr. Arie Moran, Dr. Amos Katz, Noa Cohen, Michal Rein, Nitzan Bril, and Dana Serfaty from Ben- Gurion University of Negev; Dr. Tatiana Shuster, Sagit Saadon, Malka Kaminsky, Yasmin Asuly, Roman Tsirkin, and David Shushan from Soroka Medical Center; Eyal Goshen, Meir Aviv, Hassia Krakauer, Haim Strasler, Dr.
Ziva Schwartz, Dr. Einat Sheiner, Dr. Dov Brickner, Dr. Rachel Marko, Esther Katorza, Ilanit Asulin, and Tzvika Tzur from Nuclear Research Center Negev; and Dr. Rosa M. Lamuela- Raventos, University of Barcelona. Grant Support: By the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Disclosures: The authors have no relationship with the companies that make products relevant to the manuscript.
Drs. Shai and Bolotin had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Dr. Bluüher reports compensation as a board member of Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Sanofi; compensation as a consultant for Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals, and Astra. Zeneca; and payment for lectures (including service on speakers bureaus) for Sanofi, Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk, Bayer Health. Care Pharmaceuticals, Astra. Zeneca, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, and Berlin- Chemie outside of the submitted work. Authors not named here have disclosed no conflicts of interest.
Disclosures can also be viewed at www. Conflict. Of. Interest. My Sister Is Dating My Friend. Forms. do? ms. Num=M1. Editors' Disclosures: Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Editor in Chief, reports that she has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Darren B. Taichman, MD, Ph.
D, Executive Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc, Senior Deputy Editor, reports that she has no relationships or interests to disclose. Deborah Cotton, MD, MPH, Deputy Editor, reports that she has no financial relationships or interest to disclose. Jaya K. Rao, MD, MHS, Deputy Editor, reports that she has stock holdings/options in Eli Lilly and Pfizer. Sankey V. Williams, MD, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose.
Catharine B. Stack, Ph. D, MS, Deputy Editor for Statistics, reports that she has stock holdings in Pfizer. Reproducible Research Statement: Study protocol: Available from Dr. Shai (e- mail, irish@bgu. Statistical code and data set: Not available. Requests for Single Reprints: Iris Shai, RD, Ph. D, Department of Public Health, The S.
Daniel Abraham International Center for Health and Nutrition, Ben- Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 6. Beer Sheva, 8. 41. Israel; e- mail, irish@exchange. Current Author Addresses: Drs. Golan, Bolotin, Rudich, and Shai; Mr. Gepner, Ms. Kovsan, Ms.
Witkow, Ms. Tangi- Rosental, and Ms. Ben- Avraham: Department of Public Health, Ben- Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 6. Beer Sheva, 8. 41. Israel. Drs. Harman- Boehm, Henkin, Shelef, Shemesh, Chassidim, and Liberty: Soroka Medical Center, Rager Boulevard, PO Box 1. Beer Sheva, 8. 50. Israel. Dr. Schwarzfuchs and Mr. Sarusi: Nuclear Research Center Negev, 1.
Beth Lethem Street, Dimona, 8. Israel. Drs. Durst, Leitersdorf, Balag; and Ms. Spitzen: Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Kiryat Hadassah, PO Box 1. Jerusalem, 9. 11. Israel. Dr. Helander: Department of Laboratory Medicine, H5, Division of Clinical Chemistry, CI: 7. Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Laboratory Hudding, Stockholm, SE- 1. Sweden. Drs. Ceglarek, Stumvoll, Blüher, and Thiery: Department of Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Paul List Street 1.
Leipzig, Germany. Dr. Stampfer: Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard School of Public Health, 1.
Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 0. Author Contributions: Conception and design: Y.
Gepner, I. Harman- Boehm, Y. Henkin, D. Schwarzfuchs, I. Service Vacations For Adults here. Shelef, R. Durst, E. Shemesh, S. Witkow, M.
Stumvoll, A. Rudich, M. J. Stampfer, I. Shai. Analysis and interpretation of the data: Y. Gepner, R. Golan, I. Harman- Boehm, I.
Shelef, R. Durst, J. Kovsan, A. Bolotin, S. Shpitzen, E. Shemesh, Y. Chassidim, A. Helander, U.
Ceglarek, M. Stumvoll, M. Bluüher, A. Rudich, M. J. Stampfer, I. Shai.
Drafting of the article: Y. Gepner, R. Golan, Y. Henkin, D. Schwarzfuchs, I. Shelef, R. Durst, J.
White rice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta- analysis and systematic review. Abstract. Objectives To summarise evidence on the association between white rice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes and to quantify the potential dose- response relation. Design Meta- analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Data sources Searches of Medline and Embase databases for articles published up to January 2. Study selection Included studies were prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for type 2 diabetes by rice intake levels. Data synthesis Relative risks were pooled using a random effects model; dose- response relations were evaluated using data from all rice intake categories in each study. Results Four articles were identified that included seven distinct prospective cohort analyses in Asian and Western populations for this study. A total of 1. 3 2. Asian (Chinese and Japanese) populations had much higher white rice consumption levels than did Western populations (average intake levels were three to four servings/day versus one to two servings/week).
The pooled relative risk was 1. Asian populations, whereas the corresponding relative risk was 1. Western populations (P for interaction=0. In the total population, the dose- response meta- analysis indicated that for each serving per day increment of white rice intake, the relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1. P for linear trend< 0. Conclusion Higher consumption of white rice is associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in Asian (Chinese and Japanese) populations. Introduction. Humans have a long history of cultivating rice crops; rice was first domesticated approximately 8.
Yangtze River valley in China. Rice is now grown worldwide and provides food for more than half of the world’s population, especially those living in some of the most populous countries, such as China, India, and Japan. Polished rice or white rice, which primarily consists of starch, is produced through a series of mechanised processes including hulling and milling,4 and it is the predominant type of rice consumed worldwide. Although the glycaemic index value of a specific white rice variety depends on the degree of processing, cooking time, and amylose content, the glycaemic index values of white rice are higher on average than those of whole grains.
For example, the mean glycaemic index values were 6. SD 7) for white rice, 5.
In addition, white rice is the primary contributor to dietary glycaemic load for populations that consume rice as a staple food. In large scale human observational studies among various populations, diets with a high glycaemic index or glycaemic load were associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A significant positive association between white rice consumption and risk of diabetes was observed among two cohorts of Chinese and Japanese women,5. Japanese men. 5 Two investigations in Western populations with much lower consumption levels than Asian populations also generated mixed results. These studies were heterogeneous with respect to sample size, white rice intake levels, and other characteristics that may contribute to inconsistencies in the literature. In addition, whether any dose- response relation exists between white rice consumption and risk of diabetes is unknown.
Therefore, we did a meta- analysis on all published prospective cohort studies evaluating white rice intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes and quantified dose- response relations between intake of white rice and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods. Search strategy. We did a literature search (up to January 2. Medline and Embase for prospective cohort studies examining the association between rice intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.
The search terms were (“Diabetes Mellitus”[Mesh] OR “diabetes”[All Fields]) AND (“Oryza sativa”[Mesh] OR “rice” OR “grain”) for Medline and (‘diabetes’/exp OR diabetes) AND (‘rice’/exp OR rice OR ‘grain’/exp OR grain) for Embase. We supplemented this search with a manual search of references cited by selected articles. One investigator (QS) did this literature search. Study selection. We applied the following inclusion criteria: prospective cohort study, patients with self reported prevalent diabetes excluded at baseline, and point estimates of relative risk with 9. We excluded animal studies, clinical trials, cross sectional studies, case- control studies, reviews, commentaries, letters, and studies that examined other associations. We also applied a criterion of study quality that all included cohort studies should have a loss to follow- up rate below 2. Two investigators (EAH and AP) independently screened all studies by title or abstract and then by a full text evaluation.
Any discrepancy between the two authors was solved by discussion with the senior investigator (QS).