Calcium — Health Professional Fact Sheet. Introduction. Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, muscle function, nerve transmission, intracellular signaling and hormonal secretion, though less than 1% of total body calcium is needed to support these critical metabolic functions . Serum calcium is very tightly regulated and does not fluctuate with changes in dietary intakes; the body uses bone tissue as a reservoir for, and source of calcium, to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids . The remaining 9. 9% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure and function . Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone.
The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in periods of growth in children and adolescents, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal.
In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time . Recommended Intakes.
Find out why vitamin C deficiency might occur and the possible benefits of vitamin C supplements. Daily Vitamin Intake Chart - An Introduction to Vitamin Dosage. The following table outlines the recommended daily intake of vitamins and minerals, as set forth by. Know how much water to drink to stay healthy and hydrated. The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend the number of ‘standard serves’ we should consume from the five core food groups each day, for a nutritious and.
Intake recommendations for calcium and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) . DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing the nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and gender, include: Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (9. Adequate Intake (AI): established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA and is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 5. It is usually used to assess the adequacy of nutrient intakes in populations but not individuals.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects . The FNB established RDAs for the amounts of calcium required for bone health and to maintain adequate rates of calcium retention in healthy people. They are listed in Table 1 in milligrams (mg) per day. Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Calcium Age. Male. Female. Pregnant. Lactating. 0–6 months*2.
One way to know if you are getting the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for all the nutrients you need is to follow the Food Guide Pyramid.
Adequate Intake (AI)Sources of Calcium. Food. Milk, yogurt, and cheese are rich natural sources of calcium and are the major food contributors of this nutrient to people in the United States . Nondairy sources include vegetables, such as Chinese cabbage, kale, and broccoli. Spinach provides calcium, but its bioavailability is poor. Most grains do not have high amounts of calcium unless they are fortified; however, they contribute calcium to the diet because they contain small amounts of calcium and people consume them frequently. Foods fortified with calcium include many fruit juices and drinks, tofu, and cereals. Selected food sources of calcium are listed in Table 2.
Table 2: Selected Food Sources of Calcium Food. Milligrams (mg)per serving. Percent DV*Yogurt, plain, low fat, 8 ounces. Mozzarella, part skim, 1. Sardines, canned in oil, with bones, 3 ounces.
Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 8 ounces. Cheddar cheese, 1. Milk, nonfat, 8 ounces**2. Soymilk, calcium- fortified, 8 ounces.
Milk, reduced- fat (2% milk fat), 8 ounces. Milk, buttermilk, lowfat, 8 ounces.
Milk, whole (3. 2. Victorian Maid Costumes Adults. Orange juice, calcium- fortified, 6 ounces. Tofu, firm, made with calcium sulfate, ½ cup***2.
Salmon, pink, canned, solids with bone, 3 ounces. Cottage cheese, 1% milk fat, 1 cup. Tofu, soft, made with calcium sulfate, ½ cup***1. Ready- to- eat cereal, calcium- fortified, 1 cup. Frozen yogurt, vanilla, soft serve, ½ cup. Turnip greens, fresh, boiled, ½ cup.
Kale, fresh, cooked, 1 cup. Ice cream, vanilla, ½ cup.
Chinese cabbage, bok choi, raw, shredded, 1 cup. Bread, white, 1 slice. Pudding, chocolate, ready to eat, refrigerated, 4 ounces. Tortilla, corn, ready- to- bake/fry, one 6" diameter. Tortilla, flour, ready- to- bake/fry, one 6" diameter.
Sour cream, reduced fat, cultured, 2 tablespoons. Bread, whole- wheat, 1 slice. Kale, raw, chopped, 1 cup. Broccoli, raw, ½ cup.
Cheese, cream, regular, 1 tablespoon. DV = Daily Value. DVs were developed by the U.
S. Food and Drug Administration to help consumers compare the nutrient contents among products within the context of a total daily diet. The DV for calcium is 1,0. Foods providing 2. DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient, but foods providing lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet.
RDA, AI, DV, AMDR, ULDifferent Types of Nutrient Intake Recommendations. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the U.
S. National Academy of Sciences has established various recommendations for the daily intake of nutrients. Chart 1. Definitions of various nutrient intake recommendations. Examples. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the estimated average daily nutrient intake sufficient to meet the needs of nearly all (9. RDA for vitamin B1 for adults is 1. Adequate Intake (AI) is the average daily nutrient intake recommended when the RDA cannot be established due to lack of scientific evidence.
AI is basically the same as RDA but less reliable. AI for potassium for adults is 4.
Daily Value (DV) is the recommended nutrient intake found on the Nutrition Facts labels in the United States. Daily Value is usually the highest RDA or AI value from all age and sex groups, so it should meet the needs of nearly all healthy people.
The amount of a certain nutrient in one serving of the food is listed as the percent of Daily Value (%DV). The DVs base on a caloric intake of 2,0. Calories for adults and children 4 or more years of age. DV for potassium is 3. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) are intakes that are associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. AMDRs apply for carbohydrates, proteins and fats. AMDRs are expressed in percent of calories from total daily calories.
AMDR for carbohydrates for individuals 3 years of age or older is 4. Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL) is the highest average daily intake of a nutrient unlikely to cause side effects to healthy individuals in a given life stage and sex group. UL for vitamin C for children 4- 8 years of age is 6. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) vs Daily Value (DV)In general, the more calories you consume, the more vitamins and minerals you will need. Daily Values (DVs) are based on the caloric intake 2,0. Calories per day, so if you consume, for example, 3,0.
Calories per day, your vitamin and mineral requirements will be 1. Daily Values listed on the Nutrition Facts Labels. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are amounts of nutrients that meed the needs of nearly all individuals in a given age and sex group, including the needs of the most physically active individuals, so moderately active individuals will need less nutrients than the RDAs for their age and sex group.
Vitamin C - Mayo Clinic. Overview. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a vitamin your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process. An antioxidant, vitamin C might help protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Vitamin C also helps your body absorb and store iron.
Because your body doesn't produce vitamin C, you need to get it from your diet. Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits, berries, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and spinach. Vitamin C is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets. People with gastrointestinal conditions and some types of cancer might be susceptible to vitamin C deficiency.
Vitamin C is also used to increase iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Severe vitamin C deficiency can lead to a disease characterized by anemia, bleeding gums, bruising and poor wound healing (scurvy). If you take vitamin C for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.
The recommended daily amount of vitamin C for adult men is 9. Evidence. Research on the use of vitamin C for specific conditions shows: Cancer. Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables might lower your risk of many types of cancer, such as breast, colon and lung cancers. However, it's not clear whether this protective effect is related to the vitamin C content in the food. Taking oral vitamin C supplements doesn't appear to offer the same benefit.
Common cold. Taking oral vitamin C supplements won't prevent the common cold. However, there's some evidence that when people who regularly take vitamin C supplements get a cold, the illness lasts fewer days and symptoms are less severe. Starting a vitamin C supplement only after you develop a cold is of no help. Eye diseases. Taking oral vitamin C supplements in combination with other vitamins and minerals seems to prevent age- related macular degeneration (AMD) from worsening. Some studies also suggest that people who have higher levels of vitamin C in their diets have a lower risk of developing cataracts. Our take. Generally safe.
Most people get enough vitamin C from a balanced diet. However, people with gastrointestinal conditions and some types of cancer might be susceptible to vitamin C deficiency and benefit from the use of oral supplements.
Taking vitamin C supplements also might have other protective benefits. Oct. 1. 8, 2. 01. Vitamin C — Fact sheet for health professionals. Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin. C- Health. Professional/. Accessed Aug.
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