Qualitative Research On Older Adults

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Qualitative Research On Older Adults

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Facilitated physical activity as a treatment for depressed adults: randomised controlled trial. Abstract. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of facilitated physical activity as an adjunctive treatment for adults with depression presenting in primary care.

Exploring the meaning of loneliness among socially isolated older adults in rural Ireland: a qualitative investigation.

Design Pragmatic, multicentre, two arm parallel randomised controlled trial. Setting General practices in Bristol and Exeter. Participants 3. 61 adults aged 1. All those randomised had a diagnosis of an episode of depression as assessed by the clinical interview schedule- revised and a Beck depression inventory score of 1. Interventions In addition to usual care, intervention participants were offered up to three face to face sessions and 1. The intervention was based on theory and aimed to provide individually tailored support and encouragement to engage in physical activity. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was self reported symptoms of depression, assessed with the Beck depression inventory at four months post- randomisation.

Secondary outcomes included use of antidepressants and physical activity at the four, eight, and 1. Results There was no evidence that participants offered the physical activity intervention reported improvement in mood by the four month follow- up point compared with those in the usual care group; adjusted between group difference in mean Beck depression inventory score −0. P=0. 6. 8). Similarly, there was no evidence that the intervention group reported a change in mood by the eight and 1. Nor was there evidence that the intervention reduced antidepressant use compared with usual care (adjusted odds ratio 0.

P=0. 4. 4) over the duration of the trial. However, participants allocated to the intervention group reported more physical activity during the follow- up period than those allocated to the usual care group (adjusted odds ratio 2. P=0. 0. 03). Conclusions The addition of a facilitated physical activity intervention to usual care did not improve depression outcome or reduce use of antidepressants compared with usual care alone. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN1. Introduction. Depression is one of the most common reasons for consulting a general practitioner within the United Kingdom, and its associated economic burden is considerable. Although antidepressants are effective, many patients and healthcare professionals would like other options to be available as an alternative or adjunct to drug therapy. Some evidence. 3 shows that physical activity might be an effective treatment and it has been recommended as part of the latest guidelines on depression from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

A Cochrane review. This evidence on the effectiveness of physical activity should be considered with caution, however, owing to several methodological issues. Many of the included trials were small, with even the largest reporting fewer than 5. The majority of trials recruited participants from non- clinical settings, often offering financial or other incentives to those who agreed to participate.

Most studies involved relatively short follow- up periods so that evidence for a more sustained benefit is limited, and, finally, few of the interventions designed to increase physical activity were readily applicable to clinical practice. It is therefore difficult to be confident about generalising the pooled results of the meta- analysis. We report the findings of the TREAD (TREAtment of Depression with physical activity) study,5 which investigated the effectiveness of a facilitated physical activity intervention in addition to usual care for the treatment of depression in adults presenting in primary care. Methods. The TREAD study was a pragmatic, multicentre, two arm parallel randomised controlled trial.

Adults presenting with a new episode of depression were randomised to receive either usual care from their general practitioner or usual care plus the TREAD intervention. Full details of the protocol have been published previously.

Recruitment of participants and baseline assessment. Our inclusion criteria were broad as we wanted to recruit adults presenting in primary care with new episodes of depression. However, we excluded those who had failed to respond previously to antidepressants as this group often requires more intensive interventions. We also excluded those aged 7.

Most of the participants were identified by their general practitioner during routine consultations, although in some practices the electronic patient records were also regularly screened for details of adults with a recent diagnosis of depression to identify any potentially eligible people. The study targeted adults aged 1. General practitioners excluded those who were unable to complete self administered questionnaires in English; had medical contraindications to physical activity; were being treated for psychosis, bipolar disorder, or major substance misuse; or were pregnant or breast feeding at the time of assessment.

Complete Beginner's Guide to UX Research. In an industry devoted to the people who use our products, services, and applications, research is paramount. We ask questions. We take notes. We learn everything we can about the target audience, and then iteratively test our work throughout the design process.

Newsletter Sign Up. Original UX articles. Curated Resources. Never miss an issue! Russian Woman Seeking Man. UX research—or as it’s sometimes called, design research—serves many purposes throughout the design process. It helps us identify and prove or disprove our assumptions, find commonalities across our target audience members, and recognize their needs, goals, and mental models. Overall, research informs our work, improves our understanding, and validates our decisions.

In this Complete Beginner’s Guide, we’ll look at the many elements of design research, from interviews and observations, to usability testing and A/B testing. Readers will get a head start on how to use these design research techniques in their work, and improve experiences for all users. What is UX research? UX research encompasses a variety of investigative methods used to add context and insight to the design process. Unlike other sub- fields of UX, research did not develop out of some other field or fields.

It merely translated from other forms of research. In other words, UX practitioners have borrowed many techniques from academics, scientists, market researchers, and others. However, there are still types of research that are fairly unique to the UX world. The main goal of design research is to inform the design process from the perspective of the end user. It is research that prevents us from designing for one user: ourselves. It’s fairly well accepted that the purpose of UX or user- centered design is to design with the end- user in mind, and it’s research that tells us who that person is, in what context they’ll use this product or service, and what they need from us. With that in mind, research has two parts: gathering data, and synthesizing that data in order to improve usability.

At the start of the project, design research is focused on learning about project requirements from stakeholders, and learning about the needs and goals of the end users. Researchers will conduct interviews, collect surveys, observe prospects or current users, and review existing literature, data, or analytics. Then, iteratively throughout the design process, the research focus shifts to usability and sentiment.

Researchers may conduct usability tests or A/B tests, interview users about the process, and generally test assumptions that will improve the designs. Young, Indi. 2. 00. Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media. We can also divide UX research methods into two camps: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research is any research that can be measured numerically.

It answers questions such as “how many people clicked here” or “what percentage of users are able to find the call to action?” It’s valuable in understanding statistical likelihoods and what is happening on a site or in an app. Qualitative research is sometimes called “soft” research. It helps us understand why people do the things they do, and often takes the form of interviews or conversations. Common questions include “why didn’t people see the call to action” and “what else did people notice on the page?”Though researchers may specialize in specific types of interviews or tests, most are capable of conducting a wide variety of techniques. All researchers collect the valuable information that allows us to design in an informed, contextual, user- centered manner. Common Methodologies. The various types of UX research range from in- person interviews to unmoderated A/B tests (and everything in between), though they are consistent in that they all stem from the same key methodologies: observation, understanding, and analysis.

Observation. The first step to conducting research is learning to observe the world around us. Much like beginning photographers, beginning researchers need to learn how to see.

They need to notice nervous tics that may signal that their interviewees are stressed or uncertain, and pick up on seemingly minor references that may reflect long- held beliefs or thoughts that should be further probed. Observation may seem like a simple skill, but it can be clouded by unconscious biases—which everyone has. Design researchers train themselves to observe and take notes so that they can later find patterns across seemingly diverse groups of people. Understanding. Much like observation, understanding is something we do all the time in our daily lives. We strive to understand our coworkers, our families, and our friends, often trying to grasp a point of contention or an unfamiliar concept. But for UX researchers, understanding has less to do with disagreements, and more to do with mental models.

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