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WHO Hepatitis BFact sheet. Reviewed July 2. 01. Key facts. Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. An estimated 2. 57 million people are living with hepatitis B virus infection (defined as hepatitis B surface antigen positive).
- A genetically inactivated two-component acellular pertussis vaccine, alone or combined with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines, in adolescents: a phase 2/3.
- Cough Online Medical Reference - covering Definition and Evaluation through Treatment. Co-authored by Rachel M. Taliercio and Umur Hatipoğlu of the Cleveland Clinic.
- · Pertussis (whooping cough) is a respiratory tract infection characterized by a paroxysmal cough. The most common causative organism is Bordetella pertussis.
Cochrane works collaboratively with contributors around the world to produce authoritative, relevant, and reliable evidence, in the form of Cochrane Reviews.
Immunizations, also known as vaccines are one of our greatest defenses against many serious illnesses. The Illinois Department of Public Health’s (IDPH. Functional Activities For Developmentally Disabled Adults there.
In 2. 01. 5, hepatitis B resulted in 8. Hepatitis B is an important occupational hazard for health workers. However, it can be prevented by currently available safe and effective vaccine. Hepatitis B is a potentially life- threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer. A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1.
The vaccine is 9. B. Geographical distribution.
Hepatitis B prevalence is highest in the WHO Western Pacific Region and the WHO African Region, where 6. In the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, the WHO South- East Asia Region and the WHO European Region, an estimated 3. WHO Region of the Americas is infected. Transmission. The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. Scarlatine Symptomes Adultes. During this time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine.
The incubation period of the hepatitis B virus is 7. The virus may be detected within 3. B. In highly endemic areas, hepatitis B is most commonly spread from mother to child at birth (perinatal transmission), or through horizontal transmission (exposure to infected blood), especially from an infected child to an uninfected child during the first 5 years of life. The development of chronic infection is very common in infants infected from their mothers or before the age of 5 years.
Hepatitis B is also spread by percutaneous or mucosal exposure to infected blood and various body fluids, as well as through saliva, menstrual, vaginal, and seminal fluids. Sexual transmission of hepatitis B may occur, particularly in unvaccinated men who have sex with men and heterosexual persons with multiple sex partners or contact with sex workers. Infection in adulthood leads to chronic hepatitis in less than 5% of cases. Transmission of the virus may also occur through the reuse of needles and syringes either in health- care settings or among persons who inject drugs. In addition, infection can occur during medical, surgical and dental procedures, through tattooing, or through the use of razors and similar objects that are contaminated with infected blood.
Symptoms. Most people do not experience any symptoms during the acute infection phase. However, some people have acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. A small subset of persons with acute hepatitis can develop acute liver failure, which can lead to death. In some people, the hepatitis B virus can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis (a scarring of the liver) or liver cancer. Who is at risk for chronic disease? The likelihood that infection becomes chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected.
Children less than 6 years of age who become infected with the hepatitis B virus are the most likely to develop chronic infections. In infants and children: 8. In adults: less than 5% of otherwise healthy persons who are infected as adults will develop chronic infection; and. HBV- HIV coinfection.
About 1% of persons living with HBV infection (2. HIV. Conversely, the global prevalence of HBV infection in HIV- infected persons is 7. Since 2. 01. 5, WHO has recommended treatment for everyone diagnosed with HIV infection, regardless of the stage of disease.
Tenofovir, which is included in the treatment combinations recommended in first intention against HIV infection, is also active against HBV. Diagnosis. It is not possible, on clinical grounds, to differentiate hepatitis B from hepatitis caused by other viral agents and, hence, laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is essential.
A number of blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor people with hepatitis B. They can be used to distinguish acute and chronic infections. Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B infection focuses on the detection of the hepatitis B surface antigen HBs. Ag. WHO recommends that all blood donations be tested for hepatitis B to ensure blood safety and avoid accidental transmission to people who receive blood products. Acute HBV infection is characterized by the presence of HBs. Ag and immunoglobulin M (Ig.
M) antibody to the core antigen, HBc. Ag. During the initial phase of infection, patients are also seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBe. Ag). HBe. Ag is usually a marker of high levels of replication of the virus.
The presence of HBe.
Pertussis - Wikipedia. Pertussis (also known as whooping cough or 1. Initially, symptoms are usually similar to those of the common cold with a runny nose, fever, and mild cough. This is then followed by weeks of severe coughing fits. Following a fit of coughing, a high- pitched whoop sound or gasp may occur as the person breathes in. The coughing may last for 1. A person may cough so hard that they vomit, break ribs, or become very tired from the effort. Children less than one year old may have little or no cough and instead have periods where they do not breathe. The time between infection and the onset of symptoms is usually seven to ten days.[1.
Disease may occur in those who have been vaccinated, but symptoms are typically milder.Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person.[1. People are infectious to others from the start of symptoms until about three weeks into the coughing fits. Those treated with antibiotics are no longer infectious after five days. Diagnosis is by collecting a sample from the back of the nose and throat. This sample can then be tested by either culture or by polymerase chain reaction.Prevention is mainly by vaccination with the pertussis vaccine. Initial immunization is recommended between six and eight weeks of age, with four doses to be given in the first two years of life.[1. The vaccine becomes less effective over time, with additional doses often recommended for older children and adults.[1. Antibiotics may be used to prevent the disease in those who have been exposed and are at risk of severe disease.[1. In those with the disease, antibiotics are useful if started within three weeks of the initial symptoms, but otherwise have little effect in most people. In children less than one year old and among those who are pregnant, they are recommended within six weeks of symptom onset. Antibiotics used include erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Evidence to support interventions, other than antibiotics, for the cough is poor.[1.
Many children less than a year of age require hospitalization.An estimated 1. Most cases occur in the developing world, and people of all ages may be affected.[1. In 2. 01. 5, it resulted in 5.
Nearly 0. 5% of infected children less than one year of age die. Outbreaks of the disease were first described in the 1. The bacterium that causes the infection was discovered in 1. The pertussis vaccine became available in the 1. Signs and symptomsThe classic symptoms of pertussis are a paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whoop, and fainting, or vomiting after coughing.[1.
The cough from pertussis has been documented to cause subconjunctival hemorrhages, rib fractures, urinary incontinence, hernias, and vertebral artery dissection.[1. Violent coughing can cause the pleura to rupture, leading to a pneumothorax. Vomiting after a coughing spell or an inspiratory whooping sound on coughing, almost doubles the likelihood that the illness is pertussis. The absence of a paroxysmal cough or posttussive emesis, though, makes it almost half as likely.[1.
The illness usually starts with mild respiratory symptoms, mild coughing, sneezing, or a runny nose. This is known as the catarrhal stage. After one to two weeks, the coughing classically develops into uncontrollable fits, each with five to ten forceful coughs, followed by a high- pitched "whoop" sound in younger children, or a gasping sound in older children, as the person tries to inhale (paroxysmal stage). Coughing fits can occur on their own or can be triggered by yawning, stretching, laughing, eating, or yelling; they usually occur in groups, with multiple episodes on an hourly basis throughout the day.
This stage usually lasts two to eight weeks, or sometimes longer. A gradual transition then occurs to the convalescent stage, which usually lasts one to four weeks. This stage is marked by a decrease in paroxysms of coughing, both in frequency and severity, and a cessation of vomiting. A tendency to produce the "whooping" sound after coughing may remain for a considerable period after the disease itself has cleared up. Incubation periodThe time between exposure and the development of symptoms is on average 7–1.
Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person.Spread from other animalsUncertainties have existed of B. Pof Dating Basic Search on this page. This explained the difficulties to reproduce results from different studies as the pre- inoculating handlings of the bacteria were not standardized among scientists.[2. Today it is established that at least some primate species are highly susceptible to B.