Vitiligo - Wikipedia. Vitiligo is a long- term skin condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment. The patches of skin affected become white and usually have sharp margins. The hair from the skin may also become white. Inside the mouth and nose may also be involved. Typically both sides of the body are affected. Often the patches begin on areas of skin that are exposed to the sun. It is more noticeable in people with dark skin. Vitiligo may result in psychological stress and those affected may be stigmatized.The cause is typically unknown. It is believed to be due to genetic susceptibility that is triggered by an environmental factor such that an autoimmune disease occurs. This results in the destruction of skin pigment cells. Risk factors include a family history of the condition or other autoimmune diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, alopecia areata, and pernicious anemia. It is not contagious. Vitiligo is classified into two main types: segmental and non- segmental. Most cases are non- segmental, meaning they affect both sides; and in these cases, the affected area of the skin typically expands with time. About 1. Diagnosis can be confirmed by tissue biopsy.There is no known cure for vitiligo. For those with light skin, sunscreen and makeup are all that is typically recommended. Other treatment options may include steroid creams or phototherapy to darken the light patches. Alternatively, efforts to lighten the unaffected skin, such as with hydroquinone, may be tried. A number of surgical options are available for those who do not improve with other measures. A combination of treatments generally has better outcomes.Counselling to provide emotional support may be useful.Globally about 1% of people are affected by vitiligo. Some populations have rates as high as 2–3%. Males and females are equally affected. About half show the disorder before age 2. Vitiligo has been described since ancient history.Signs and symptomsThe only sign of vitiligo is the presence of pale patchy areas of depigmented skin which tend to occur on the extremities. The patches are initially small, but often grow and change shape. When skin lesions occur, they are most prominent on the face, hands and wrists. The loss of skin pigmentation is particularly noticeable around body orifices, such as the mouth, eyes, nostrils, genitalia and umbilicus. Some lesions have increased skin pigment around the edges. Those affected by vitiligo who are stigmatized for their condition may experience depression and similar mood disorders.[1. Although multiple hypotheses have been suggested as potential triggers that cause vitiligo, studies strongly imply that changes in the immune system are responsible for the condition.[1.
Vitiligo has been proposed to be a multifactorial disease with genetic susceptibility and environmental factors both thought to play a role.The TYR gene encodes the protein tyrosinase, which is not a component of the immune system, but is an enzyme of the melanocyte that catalyzes melanin biosynthesis, and a major autoantigen in generalized vitiligo. The NIH states that sunburns can cause the disease but there is not good evidence to support this.[1. Preliminary evidence suggests a possible association with eating gluten.[1.
Variations in genes that are part of the immune system or part of melanocytes have both been associated with vitiligo. It is also thought to be caused by the immune system attacking and destroying the melanocytes of the skin.[1. A genomewide association study found approximately 3. Autoimmune associationsVitiligo is sometimes associated with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, Addison's disease, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus, and celiac disease.[1. Among the inflammatory products of NALP1 are caspase 1 and caspase 7, which activate the inflammatory cytokineinterleukin- 1β. Interleukin- 1β and interleukin- 1. In one of the mutations, the amino acid leucine in the NALP1 protein was replaced by histidine (Leu. His). The original protein and sequence is highly conserved in evolution, and is found in humans, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, and the bush baby.
Addison's disease (typically an autoimmune destruction of the adrenal glands) may also be seen in individuals with vitiligo.[1. Diagnosis. UV photograph of a hand with vitiligo.
UV photograph of a foot with vitiligo. An ultraviolet light can be used in the early phase of this disease for identification and to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Skin with vitiligo, when exposed to a blacklight, will glow blue.
In contrast, healthy skin will have no reaction. ClassificationClassification attempts to quantify vitiligo have been analyzed as being somewhat inconsistent,[2.
Leusden Journal Afraid of Falling? For Older Adults, the Dutch Have a Cure. The Dutch, like people elsewhere, are living longer than in previous generations. 福岡県で一番古い酒蔵 創業延宝元年（1673年） 大賀酒造（玉出泉） 2017年 秋の酒蔵開き. Who gets pityriasis versicolor? Pityriasis versicolor most frequently affects young adults and is slightly more common in men than in women. It can also affect.
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- UMLS. Pityriasis Versicolor, Pityriasis, versicolor, PV - Pityriasis versicolor, Tinea flava, Tinea Versicolor, Tinea versicolor due to Malassezia furfur, Tinea.
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- Definition. Discrete asymptomatic hypopigmented patches on the face, neck, upper trunk and proximal extremities of children and young adults. Most cases appear.
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