Review for NCLEX- RN Examination 3. QUESTION NUMBER _ 3. MC) QUESTION: "Which of the following statements would indicate that the parents of a child being treated with antibiotics for an ear infection understand the reason for a follow- up visit after the child completes the course of therapy?" CHOICES ( X ) a.) "Her hearing needs to be checked to see if the infection has done any damage."( X ) b.) "The doctor wants to make certain she has taken all the antibiotics."( O ) c.) "We need to make sure that her ear infection has completely cleared."( X ) d.) "She needs to get another prescription for second course of antibiotics."RATIONALE: Because ear infections are sometimes difficult to treat, determining if the antibiotic has resolved the infection is essential. If the client is not rechecked, it will be difficult to determine if another infection is a continuation of a previous infection or a separate new infection. Although studies may be done to determine if an infection has impaired the child's hearing, they are not done routinely after each course of antibiotic therapy.
Definition Reflex tests are simple physical tests of nervous system function.
The Babinski sign is a natural reflex seen in infants and young children. Learn how this reflex is tested and what it says about a child's development.
- Essay about how multiple sclerosis is diagnosed, including diagnostic criteria for MS, differential diagnosis, neurological examination, MRI scan, spinal tap, EP tests.
- Any patient who presents with signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism should be treated as a medical emergency. As pulmonary embolisms rarely present with a clear.
- The Babinski reflex or Babinski sign is pathalogical (altered or abnormal) reflex of the lower limb which indicates damage to the corticospinal tracts of the spinal cord.
- What is Babinski reflex in newborns definition, test, video, duration, absent and retained reflex.
A visit to the physician's office cannot validate that all the medication was taken. A follow- up visit helps to determine if the infection has completely cleared.
If the infection is resolved with one course of antibiotics, another course will not be prescribed. NURSING PROCESS STEP: Evaluation CLIENT NEEDS CATEGORY: Physiological integrity CLIENT NEEDS SUBCATEGORY: Physiological adaptation******************************- -> QUESTION NUMBER _ 3. MC) QUESTION: "When teaching the parents of a 1- year- old child who is scheduled for placement of tympanostomy tubes, which of the following would the nurse include as the purpose for these tubes?" CHOICES ( X ) a.) Allow distribution of antibiotic solution into the middle ear.( X ) b.) Assist in shrinking the mucosal lining of the middle ear.( X ) c.) Increase the pressure in the middle ear.( O ) d.) Allow ventilation and drainage of the middle ear. RATIONALE: Tympanostomy tubes allow ventilation of the middle ear and facilitate fluid drainage by maintaining the patency of the eustachian tube. The tubes help to equalize pressure but are not used to distribute medication into the ear.
CHROMOSOMES Typical SMN mutations in SMA SMN1 Normal gene SMN1 Mutation types Deletion: More severe SMA Conversion to SMN2 gene : Milder SMA. Henry Mills Dating Scam Ghana.
Decongestants, not tympanostomy tubes, may be used to shrink mucous membranes and improve eustachian tube function. Tympanostomy tubes help to equalize, not increase, the pressure in the middle ear. NURSING PROCESS STEP: Implementation CLIENT NEEDS CATEGORY: Physiological integrity CLIENT NEEDS SUBCATEGORY: Physiological adaptation******************************- -> QUESTION NUMBER _ 3. MC) QUESTION: "When developing the postoperative plan of care for a child who is scheduled to have a tympanostomy tubes inserted into the right ear, which of the following interventions would the nurse identify to facilitate drainage?" CHOICES ( X ) a.) Applying warm compresses to the right ear.( O ) b.) Positioning the child to lie on the right side.( X ) c.) Applying a gauze dressing to the left ear.( X ) d.) Applying an ice pack to the left ear. RATIONALE: Positioning the child on the affected side, in this case the right side, will promote drainage from the middle ear by gravity. Application of heat, such as in the form of warm compresses, may facilitate drainage of exudate from the ear but only if the child is lying on the affected side.
A gauze dressing is not applied after surgery. However, a loose wick may be inserted into the external ear canal to absorb drainage from the right ear. Application of an ice bag may help reduce pressure and edema. However, the ice bag would be applied to the right ear.
NURSING PROCESS STEP: Planning CLIENT NEEDS CATEGORY: Physiological integrity CLIENT NEEDS SUBCATEGORY: Physiological adaptation******************************- -> QUESTION NUMBER _ 3. MC) QUESTION: "Following insertion of tympanostomy tubes, offering liquid or soft foods to keep the child from chewing is written on the postoperative plan of care. Which of the following nursing diagnoses would this intervention address?" CHOICES ( X ) a.) Hyperthermia related to infectious process.( X ) b.) Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity related to ear drainage.( O ) c.) Pain related to the inflammatory process.( X ) d.) Anxiety related to unfamiliar situation.
RATIONALE: After tube insertion, the inflammatory process results in pain. Activities such as chewing often exacerbate this pain. Thus, the avoidance of chewing by offering liquid or soft foods is an intervention that addresses the nursing diagnosis of pain. For the nursing diagnosis of Hyperthermia, interventions typically would include removing bedclothes and extra clothing, reducing environmental temperature, and encouraging fluids. For the nursing diagnosis of Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity, appropriate measures would include keeping the skin around the ear clean and dry, cleansing with hydrogen peroxide, and protecting the skin with a protective coating.
What Is the Babinski Reflex? Posted on 1. 4 Oct 2.
The Babinski reflex or Babinski sign is pathalogical (altered or abnormal) reflex of the lower limb which indicates damage to the corticospinal tracts of the spinal cord. These pathways are also called the pyramidal tracts after the pyramid- shaped parts of the medulla oblongata through which they pass. To elicit the Babinski reflex, an examiner forcefully strokes the edge of the bottom of a patient's foot (lateral plantar surface or sole) with a moderately sharp object from the heel to the toes. The Babinski reflex is named after its discoverer, Joseph Babinski, who described it in 1.
The normal response to this stimulus is plantar flexion of the foot and toes, called the plantar reflex. This means that the foot and toes will flex or 'curl' away from the leg. In the Babinski reflex, much the opposite happens and the big toe extends upwards toward the leg, called dorsiflexion, while the other toes fan out. This response, it should be noted, is normal in infants up to 1.
It should start to wane between 6 to 8 months of age and disappear after one year. In infants, the Babinski reflex is usually classified in a group of reflexes called primitive or infantile reflexes, which are present at birth and later disappear; or change in the case of the Babinski reflex. When a positive Babinski reflex is found in adults, it is considered a clinically positive sign of corticospinal damage. It is possible for this response to be triggered in some patients by other noxious stimuli such as loud noise, pain, or just a bump on the bed. Sometimes, as well, it can be elicited by stroking other parts of the foot. The sign may be only on one side or on both, may start out unilateral and progress to bilateral, and it may be temporary or permanent. A temporary Babinski reflex tends to occur during the postical, or third, phase of a seizure.
With corticospinal damage, the sign is more likely to be permanent. Positive Babinski Sign. Sometimes, despite other evidence of corticospinal tract damage, an equivocal (unclear and hard to interpret) Babinski is found. When this happens other signs are sought such as the following: Chaddock reflex: Babinski reflex caused by stimuation of the skin over the lateral malleolus, the bony prominence of the side of the ankle.
Oppenheim sign: the Babinski reflex caused by a very instense stroke along the edge of the tibia from the knee downward. Gordon sign: Babinski sign evoked by pressing or firmly squeezing the calf muscles. Rossolimo sign: Flexion of the second through fifth toes (toe flexor reflex) caused by a tap on the bottom of the distal phalanges (the ends of the toes).
This is not a perfectly reliable indication of a corticospinal tract lesion. These additional tests are not needed if the classic Babinski reflex is present and unequivocal, and there is other evidence of pyramidal tract damage. The lack of any toe movement at all, called Mute soles, in response to the Babinski test can be a beginning stage of the Babinski reflex in some patients. But in other patients it can be clinically meaningless. A "negative Babinski reflex" is a confusing term because of the word negative, but it would actually mean that the response, plantar flexion, was normal. A positive Babinski sign is actually the sign of damage.
Babinski Sign in a Normal Infant. The normal reflex to this kind of stimulus to the bottom of the foot is known as the plantar reflex. There are several other important lower limb reflexes which examiners use in neurological testing such as the knee- jerk reflex (patellar tendon reflex or quadriceps femoris reflex), the tibialis posterior reflex, foot extensor reflex (peroneus muscle reflex), ankle- jerk reflex (achilles reflex, triceps surae reflex), and biceps femoris reflex. The corticospinal pathway (lateral and anterior "tracts") is one of the ascending tracts of the spinal cord. These tracts are responsible for conducting impulses from body parts and carrying sensory information to the brain (the descending tracts carry motor impulses from the brain to the muscles an glands).
The corticospinal tracts carry motor impulses to the spinal nerves and to various skeletal muscles and so are involved in voluntary movement. Hoffman's sign is the upper limb equivalent of Babinski's reflex. Here, the examiner holds the patient's middle finger and gives the middle phalanx of the finger a strong flick.
If the thumb of the same hand spontaneously flexes in response, this is a positive sign and it raises suspicion of an upper neuron lesion. Both the upper and lower limbs would be affected, so the Babinski test is usually performed.
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