Nevus is a nonspecific medical term for a visible, circumscribed, chronic lesion of the skin or mucosa. The term originates from nævus, which is Latin for "birthmark.
A bruise is generally understood to mean an area of haemorrhage caused by the leakage of blood from ruptured vessels (including capillaries, but predominantly veins, venules and small arterioles) - into surrounding (perivascular) tissues, following a 'blow'. The picture above is of a bruise with a mixture of colours, which is diffusing at the yellowing edges, indicating that this was probably inflicted several days before this photograph was taken. 1.
This term is used to describe very small 'pinpoint' (i. Their pathogenesis is poorly understood, but may relate to raised intra- capillary pressure due to an obstruction of venous return (subsequent to pressure applied to the upper chest or neck, for example), hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction (in sepsis) or a combination of these factors (Jaffe 1. Petechiae can also be caused by blunt trauma (Jaffe 1. Saukko and Knight 2.
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The presence of petechiae has been reported in a wide variety of situations including; Although they appear to be a non- specific manifestation of capillary damage or dysfunction, their presence demands an explanation, and in particular prompts a careful examination of the anterior neck structures in order to exclude pressure having been applied to the neck.(See National Library of Medicine (USA) - image of petechial haemorrhages, and University of Toronto 'Anatomia' - anatomy of the larynx )2. Where an extravasation of blood arises within the deeper dermis, allowing extension of blood into subcutaneous tissues, the 'outline' of the briuse seen at the skin surface is usually 'blurred' or indistinct. If the bleeding occurs more superficially, however, the result is a so- called 'intradermal bruise', where the components of the bruise are more easily deliniated (punctiform, sharply defined and 'bright red in colour'). A 'negative image' of the profile of the impacting instrument is produced i. Bohnert et al 2. 00.
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In these injuries, usually caused by an impact to the skin by an implement that has a surface consisting of 'grooves' or 'ridges', the outline of the implement may be 'retained'. The finding of a 'patterned' injury is of considerable forensic interest - careful documentation and photography of such a wound may allow subsequent matching of a putative injury- causing implement with the skin surface bruise (a form of 'tool mark' analysis utilising computer- enhanced photographic 'overlay' techniques).
Examples of situations in which an intradermal bruise may be produced (Saukko and Knight 2. Thali et al 2. 00. Patterned bruising with injury- causing implement (belt buckle)Source: Forensic Medicine, Raisky MI 1. USSR) via ebay. 3. When a person is struck with a cylindrical object, such as an iron bar, baseball bat, or police asp etc, the bruise pattern formed is quite distinct. Get Well Ecards For Adults here. The skin surface is indented and blood vessels at the edges are ruptured. Blood is squeezed out of any vessels along the point of contact, but the vessels remain relatively intact (particularly if the supporting tissues are lax).
When the impacting object is removed, blood flows back into the undamaged vessels, but leaks from the damaged ones. The resulting bruise is termed a ‘tramline bruise’ because it appears as a pale linear central area lined on either side by linear bruising(See a picture of tramline bruising)4.
Where an assailant has forcefully gripped a person, for example around the neck (e. These may be discrete, but are often blurred or may 'merge' with one another, due to the dynamic nature of assaults and struggles with an assailant.
Sites to look for these bruises include,5. Others‘Defensive’ bruises on the upper arms or forearms, where a victim has attempted to ward off their attacker’s blows to protect vital organs/ body parts. Bruising around the mouth or lips, which may corroborate a history of having had a hand forcibly placed over their mouth to silence the victim. Bruising on the shoulder prominences, which may corroborate a history of having been forcibly pushed up against a wall etc during an assault. In addition, the following 'signs' describe subcutaneous haemorrhage resulting from blood tracking from distant sites of injury, but do not represent 'bruises' of the site at which the skin discolouration is visible (Dolinak and Matshes 2. Battle’s sign (named after William Henry Battle) – bruising visible behind and below the ear at the mastoid process, caused by the gravitational accumulation of blood from a basilar skull fracture,Source: www. Racoon/ panda eyes’ – bruising of the lax soft tissues around the eyes caused by skull base fractures.
Source: www. itim. Bruises caused by injury should also be distinguished from skin discolouration seen in ‘Mongolian blue spots’ in children, ‘Campbell de Morgan spots’, striae and (senile) purpura. Further details of these innocent lesions can be obtained from standard dermatology and paediatric texts.(See Derm Atlas for an image of a Mongolian Blue spot)CT/ MRI visualisation of bruises: Yen et al 2.
Thali et al 2. 00. Jokes In Spanish For Adults.
Mongoloid - Wikipedia. Mongoloid is a term used for all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas, the Pacific Islands, and other lesser occurrences in other regions, but are the minority. Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds (skin folds covering the corners of the eyes), sinodonty (shovel tooth dental shape) and neoteny (retaining more juvenile physiological traits). The concept of Mongoloid races is historical referring to a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon. It is today not widely used by anthropologists as its validity and usefulness in classification is considered highly questionable. Epicanthic folds and oblique palpebral fissures are common among Mongoloid individuals. Most exhibit the Mongolian spot from birth to about age four. Mongoloids in general have straight, black hair and dark brown almond- shaped eyes, and have relatively flatter faces in comparison to caucasoid skull.Traits more controversially ascribed to Mongoloids include high intelligence and a stoic, taciturn, unaggressive demeanor.
The extent to which individual psychological makeup is a social construct, rather than a matter of biology, remains a matter of debate. See also the articles Race and intelligence and Model minority.)The term mongoloid was introduced by 1.
Central Asian and East Asian populations, as part of a tripartite typological model of race: Mongoloid, Caucasoid, and Negroid. Although some forensic anthropologists and other scientists continue to use such terms in some contexts (such as criminal justice), their usage is now discouraged by most anthropologists due to the questionable nature of such models. In addition, Mongoloid has had a second usage, now generally avoided as highly offensive: until the late 2. Down syndrome[1. Mongoloids" or in terms of "Mongolian idiocy" or "Mongolian imbecility". Geographic range and populations includedMongoloid or Asiatic peoples are the most spread out among all human populations since they have stretched almost completely around the earth's surface.
From an Asian point of reference, populations range from as far east as Greenland, to as far west as Kalmykia, Crimea, and northern Europe,[1. Asiatic peoples or their descendants a historical presence across four continents. According to the Meyers Konversations- Lexikon (1. Mongoloid race are North Mongol, Chinese & Indochinese, Japanese & Korean, Tibetan & Burmese, Malay, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, and Native American.[1. In 1. 85. 6, the "Mongolian" race, using a narrow definition which did not include either the "Malay" or the "American" races, was the second most populous race in the world behind the Caucasian race.[1. In 1. 88. 1, the Mongoloid race, using a broad definition which included both Malays and indigenous Americans, was the most populous race on Earth,[2.
Earth in the year 1. Malayan" or the "American" races.[2. In 1. 99. 4, the Mongoloid race, using a broad definition which included indigenous Americans, comprised 3. Earth's human population which made it the second most populous race behind Caucasoids who comprised 5. Earth's human population at that time.[2. The first use of the term Mongolian race was by Christoph Meiners in 1. Tartar- Caucasians" and "Mongolians".[2.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach said that he borrowed the term Mongolian from Christoph Meiners to describe the race he designated "second, [which] includes that part of Asia beyond the Ganges and below the river Amoor, which looks toward the south, together with the islands and the greater part of these countries which is now called Australian".[2. In 1. 86. 1, Isidore Geoffroy Saint- Hilaire added the Australian as a secondary race (subrace) of the principal race of Mongolian.[2.
In the nineteenth century Georges Cuvier used the term Mongolian again as a racial classification, but additionally included American Indians under the term.[2. Arthur de Gobineau defined the extent of the Mongolian race, "by the yellow the Altaic, Mongol, Finnish and Tartar branches".[2. Later, Thomas Huxley used the term Mongoloid and included American Indians as well as Arctic Native Americans.[2. Other terms were proposed, such as Mesochroi (middle color),[3. Mongoloid was widely adopted. In 1. 90. 9, a map published based on racial classifications conceived by Herbert Hope Risley classified inhabitants of Bengal and parts of Odisha as Mongolo- Dravidians, people of mixed Mongoloid and Dravidian origin.[3. Similarly in 1. 90.
Ponnambalam Arunachalam claimed the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka were a people of mixed Mongolian and Malay racial origins as well as Indo- Aryan, Dravidian and Vedda origins.[3. Howard S. Stoudt in The Physical Anthropology of Ceylon (1.
Carleton S. Coon in The Living Races of Man (1. Umbilical Fistula In Adults there. Sinhalese as partly Mongoloid.[3.