Background Adverse-event reports from North America have raised concern that the use of drugs for attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk. Uses Medical. Methylphenidate is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system. It produces such effects as. Many think methylphenidate (Methylin) is safe, or mild, because so many children use it. However, the government classifies the psychoactive drug with cocaine and. What are the other health effects of marijuana? Marijuana use may have a wide range of effects, both physical and mental. Physical Effects. Breathing problems. OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched.
Methylphenidate CD Capsules official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
Ritalin is an addictive stimulant drug. Sometimes called *speed* or *uppers,* Ritalin can cause high blood pressure, severe insomnia, psychotic symptoms (like seeing. Definition Amitriptyline is a medication used to treat various forms of depression, pain associated with the nerves (neuropathic pain), and to prevent. Ritalin is the brand name for methylphenidate, a stimulant used to treat Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, in children and adults. ADHD is. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
Methylphenidate Hydrochloride - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Generic Name: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride. Dosage Form: tablet, extended release. WARNING: DRUG DEPENDENCEMethylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets USP should be given cautiously to patients with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism.
Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. Frank psychotic episodes can occur, especially with parenteral abuse. Careful supervision is required during withdrawal from abusive use since severe depression may occur. Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow- up. Indications and Usage for Methylphenidate Hydrochloride. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets USP is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children 6 years of age and older, adolescents, and adults up to the age of 6. Clinical Studies (1.
A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; DSM- IV) implies the presence of hyperactive- impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive- Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; "on the go; " excessive talking; blurting answers; can't wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive- impulsive criteria to be met.
Special Diagnostic Considerations. Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use of medical and special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the patient and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM- IV characteristics. Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program.
Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets are indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social). Drug treatment may not be indicated for all patients with ADHD. Stimulants are not intended for use in patients who exhibit symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the patient's symptoms. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Dosage and Administration. General Dosing Information.
Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets should be administered orally once daily in the morning with or without food. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets must be swallowed whole with the aid of liquids, and must not be chewed, divided, or crushed [see Patient Counseling Information (1. Patients New to Methylphenidate. The recommended starting dose of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets for patients who are not currently taking methylphenidate or stimulants other than methylphenidate is 1.
Table 1). TABLE 1. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets Recommended Starting Doses and Dose Ranges. Patient Age. Recommended Starting Dose. Dose Range Children 6–1.
Adolescents 1. 3–1. Adults 1. 8–6. 5 years of age 1. Patients Currently Using Methylphenidate. The recommended dose of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets for patients who are currently taking methylphenidate twice daily or three times daily at doses of 1.
Table 2. Dosing recommendations are based on current dose regimen and clinical judgment. Conversion dosage should not exceed 7. TABLE 2. Recommended Dose Conversion from Methylphenidate Regimens to Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets. Fantasy For Adults Only Portland Or. Previous Methylphenidate Daily Dose. Recommended Methylphenidate Hydrochloride extended- release tablets Starting Dose 5 mg Methylphenidate twice daily or three times daily 1.
Methylphenidate twice daily or three times daily 3. Methylphenidate twice daily or three times daily 5. Methylphenidate twice daily or three times daily 7.
Photo by: photocreo. Definition. Methylphenidate is a mild, central nervous system stimulant. In the United. States, the drug is sold under the brand name Ritalin. Methylphenidate is used primarily in the treatment of. ADHD) in children and adults. It also may be used to treat the sleep.
In rare cases, it is used to decrease sedation and lethargy from opioid. Description. The mode of action for methylphenidate is not fully understood. It. presumably activates the. The brain. stem arousal system increases levels of electrical activity in the brain. The effect of methylphenidate is to produce increased alertness and. ADHD are overactive and have decreased attention. Tablets are available in 5- .
Recommended dosage. The recommended dosage of methylphenidate is determined by trial and error. Methylphenidate is usually administered in. For children suffering from ADHD, the initial recommended dosage is 5 mg. The average total dosage is.
For. narcolepsy in adults, the recommended dose is 5–2. The drug should be taken exactly as directed. Methylphenidate can become. Individuals should take the last dose of the day before 6 P. M. to decrease sleep difficulties.
The tablet should not be broken or. If the normal time of. However, two tablets should. Precautions. Methylphenidate has a great potential to produce physical and mental. Administration should not be stopped abruptly. Such action can. cause withdrawal symptoms including depression, paranoid feelings.
Methylphenidate should not. It is not indicated for use by those with Tourette's. The drug should be used. Methylphenidate is not typically. Methylphenidate should not be ordered for children younger than six years.
People. should not drive or operate machinery or appliances until they understand. They should not drive if they become. Methylphenidate may cause irregularities in the. People. taking methylphenidate should receive regular blood tests. Side effects. The most common side effects are nervousness, difficulties with sleep.
Reducing the dose or changing the time the drug is taken may. Affected persons should discuss any adverse. Individuals taking. Methylphenidate also may cause dizziness, irritability, vision changes. Less common side effects include chest.
Side effects may also include a rapid or irregular heartbeat. At higher dosages or with. Interactions. Several drugs may interact adversely with methylphenidate, including. The dosages of these drugs may be reduced when taken. Resources. Adams, Michael and Norman Holland.
Core Concepts in. Pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lippincott- Raven, 1.
Breggin, Peter R. Dick Scruggs. Talking Back to Ritalin. What Doctors Aren't Telling You About Stimulants and ADHD. Boulder, CO: Perseus Book Group, 2.
Foreman, John C. and Torben Johansen. Textbook of Receptor. Pharmacology. 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press,2. Markowitz, John S., and C.
Lindsay De. Vane. The Ritalin. Handbook. Kearney, NJ: Morris Publishing, 2.
Page, Clive P. and Michael Murphy. Integrated. Pharmacology.
St. Louis: Mosby- Year Book, 2. Von Boxtel, Chris, Budiono Santoso, and I. Ralph Edwards. Drug Benefits and Risks: International Textbook of Clinical.
Pharmacology. New York: John Wiley and Sons,2. PERIODICALS. Miller, A. R., C. E. Lalonde, K. M. Mc. Grail, and R.
W. Armstrong. "Prescription of methylphenidate to children and youth. Canadian Medical Journal. Perring C. "Medicating children: the case of Ritalin.".
Bioethics. (1. 99. Sund, A. M., and P. Zeiner. "Does extended medication with.
Norwegian Journal of Psychiatry. ORGANIZATIONS. American Academy of Family Physicians.
Tomahawk Creek Parkway. Leawood, KS 6. 62. Telephone: (9. 13) 9. Web site. < http: //www. American College of Physicians. N Independence Mall West.
Philadelphia, PA 1. Telephone: (8. 00) 5. Web site. < http: //www.
American Medical Association. N. State Street, Chicago, IL 6. Telephone: (3. 12) 4.
Web site. < http: //www. American Psychiatric Association. K Street NW, Washington, DC 2.
Telephone: (8. 88) 3. Fax(2. 02) 6. 82- 6. American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; 5. North. Washington Street, Alexandria, VA 2. Phone: (7. 03) 8. Fax: (7. 03). 8. 36- 5. American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 2. Telephone: (3. 01) 5. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Infofax/ritalin. html>. Nurse's PDR Resource Center. L. Fleming Fallon, Jr., M.
Drug. Facts: Marijuana National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)What is marijuana? Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant. The plant contains the mind- altering chemical THC and other similar compounds. Extracts can also be made from the cannabis plant (see "Marijuana Extracts"). Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States.
Its use is widespread among young people. In 2. 01. 5, more than 1. According to the Monitoring the Future survey, rates of marijuana use among middle and high school students have dropped or leveled off in the past few years after several years of increase. However, the number of young people who believe regular marijuana use is risky is decreasing. Reviews Conservative Dating Websites. Legalization of marijuana for medical use or adult recreational use in a growing number of states may affect these views. Read more about marijuana as medicine in our Drug. Facts: Marijuana as Medicine.
How do people use marijuana? People smoke marijuana in hand- rolled cigarettes (joints) or in pipes or water pipes (bongs).
They also smoke it in blunts—emptied cigars that have been partly or completely refilled with marijuana. To avoid inhaling smoke, some people are using vaporizers. These devices pull the active ingredients (including THC) from the marijuana and collect their vapor in a storage unit.
A person then inhales the vapor, not the smoke. Some vaporizers use a liquid marijuana extract. People can mix marijuana in food (edibles), such as brownies, cookies, or candy, or brew it as a tea. A newly popular method of use is smoking or eating different forms of THC- rich resins (see "Marijuana Extracts"). Marijuana Extracts. Smoking THC- rich resins extracted from the marijuana plant is on the rise. People call this practice dabbing.
These extracts come in various forms, such as. These extracts can deliver extremely large amounts of THC to the body, and their use has sent some people to the emergency room. Another danger is in preparing these extracts, which usually involves butane (lighter fluid). A number of people have caused fires and explosions and have been seriously burned from using butane to make extracts at home.
How does marijuana affect the brain? Marijuana has both short- and long- term effects on the brain. THC acts on numerous areas in the brain (in yellow). Image by NIDAShort- Term Effects.
When a person smokes marijuana, THC quickly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream. The blood carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body. The body absorbs THC more slowly when the person eats or drinks it. In that case, they generally feel the effects after 3. THC acts on specific brain cell receptors that ordinarily react to natural THC- like chemicals.
These natural chemicals play a role in normal brain development and function. Marijuana overactivates parts of the brain that contain the highest number of these receptors. This causes the "high" that people feel. Other effects include: altered senses (for example, seeing brighter colors)altered sense of timechanges in moodimpaired body movementdifficulty with thinking and problem- solvingimpaired memoryhallucinations (when taken in high doses)delusions (when taken in high doses)psychosis (when taken in high doses)Long- Term Effects. Marijuana also affects brain development. When people begin using marijuana as teenagers, the drug may impair thinking, memory, and learning functions and affect how the brain builds connections between the areas necessary for these functions. Researchers are still studying how long marijuana's effects last and whether some changes may be permanent.
For example, a study from New Zealand conducted in part by researchers at Duke University showed that people who started smoking marijuana heavily in their teens and had an ongoing marijuana use disorder lost an average of 8 IQ points between ages 1. The lost mental abilities didn't fully return in those who quit marijuana as adults. Those who started smoking marijuana as adults didn't show notable IQ declines. In another recent study on twins, those who used marijuana showed a significant decline in general knowledge and in verbal ability (equivalent to 4 IQ points) between the preteen years and early adulthood, but no predictable difference was found between twins when one used marijuana and the other didn't. This suggests that the IQ decline in marijuana users may be caused by something other than marijuana, such as shared familial factors (e. NIDA’s Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a major longitudinal study, is tracking a large sample of young Americans from late childhood to early adulthood to help clarify how and to what extent marijuana and other substances, alone and in combination, affect adolescent brain development.
Read more about the ABCD study on our Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD Study) webpage. A Rise in Marijuana’s THC Levels.