Choline Linus Pauling Institute. Free Pittsburgh Dating. Summary. Choline is a vitamin- like essential nutrient and a methyl donor involved in many physiological processes, including normal metabolism and transport of lipids, methylation reactions, and neurotransmittersynthesis. More information)Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements and thus the susceptibility to choline deficiency- induced fatty liver disease.
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More information)The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 4. More information)Choline is involved in the regulation of homocysteine concentration in the blood through its metabolite betaine. There is currently no convincing evidence that high choline intakes could benefit cardiovascular health through lowering blood homocysteine. Besides, elevated blood concentrations of trimethylamine N- oxide (TMAO), generated from choline, may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. More information)The need for choline is probably increased during pregnancy.
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Case- control studies examining the relationship between maternal choline status and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) have given inconsistent results. It is not yet known whether periconceptual choline supplementation could confer protection against NTDs. More information)Animal studies have shown that choline is essential for optimal brain development and influences cognitive function in later life. However, in humans, there is not enough evidence to assert that choline supplementation during pregnancy improves offspring’s cognitive performance or that it helps prevent cognitive decline in older people. More information)Recent intervention studies have found that supplementation with citicoline (a choline derivative) may be useful to limit neurologic damage in stroke patients and improve retinal function in some glaucoma patients. It remains unclear whether citicoline could be used in the treatment of dementias and in head trauma patients. More information) De novo choline synthesis in humans is not sufficient to meet their metabolic needs.
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Good dietary sources of choline include eggs, meat, poultry, fish, cruciferous vegetables, peanuts, and dairy products. More information)Excessive consumption of choline (≥7,5. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for adults is 3,5.
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More information)Although choline is not by strict definition a vitamin, it is an essential nutrient. Despite the fact that humans can synthesize it in small amounts, choline must be consumed in the diet to maintain health. The majority of the body's choline is found in specialized fat molecules known as phospholipids, the most common of which is called phosphatidylcholine (1). Function. Choline and compounds derived from choline (i. Figure 1) (1). Structural integrity of cell membranes. Choline is used in the synthesis of certain phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) that are essential structural components of cell membranes. Phosphatidylcholine accounts for about 9.
This phospholipid can be synthesized from dietary choline via the cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP- choline) pathway or through the methylation of another phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (Figure 2) (3). Sphingomyelin is a type of sphingosine- containing phospholipid (sphingolipid) that is synthesized by the transfer of a phosphocholine residue from a phosphatidylcholine to a ceramide (Figure 3). Sphingomyelin is found in cell membranes and in the fatty sheath that envelops myelinated nerve fibers. Cell signaling. The choline- containing phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, are precursors for the intracellular messenger molecules, diacylglycerol and ceramide. Specifically, sphingomyelinases (also known as sphingomyelin phosphodiestarases) catalyze the cleavage of sphingomyelin, generating phosphocholine and ceramide. Diacylglycerol is released by the degradation of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipases.
Other choline metabolites known to be cell- signaling molecules include platelet activating factor (PAF) and sphingophosphocholine. Nerve impulse transmission. Choline is a precursor for acetylcholine, an important neurotransmittersynthesized by cholinergic neurons and involved in muscle control, circadian rhythm, memory, and many other neuronal functions. Choline acetyltransferase catalyzes the acetylation of choline to acetylcholine, and acetylcholine esterase hydrolyzes acetylcholine to choline and acetate (4). Six Foot Five Inch Russian Lady With 52 Inch Legs.
CDP- choline administration was also found to stimulate the synthesis and release of a family of neurotransmitters derived from tyrosine (i. Of note, non- neuronal cells of various tissues and organ systems also synthesize and release acetylcholine, which then binds and stimulates cholinergic receptors on target cells (reviewed in 6). Lipid (fat) transport and metabolism.
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