Seizures in adults. WHAT IS A SEIZURE? The brain contains billions of neurons (nerve cells) that create and receive electrical impulses. Electrical impulses allow neurons to communicate with one another. During a seizure, there is abnormal and excessive electrical activity in the brain. This can cause changes in awareness, behavior, and/or abnormal movements.
This activity usually lasts only a few seconds to minutes. Epilepsy refers to a condition in which a person has a risk of recurring epileptic seizures. Not everyone who has had a seizure has epilepsy. Nonepileptic seizures can be caused by other conditions such as low blood sugar, a fainting spell, or an anxiety attack. SEIZURE SYMPTOMSSeizure types — One of the most common seizure types is a convulsion. This may be called a "tonic clonic" or "grand mal" seizure. In this type of seizure, a person may stiffen and have jerking muscle movements; during the muscle- jerking, the person may bite their tongue, causing bleeding or frothing at the mouth.
Other seizure types are less dramatic. Shaking movements may be isolated to one arm or part of the face. Alternatively, the person may suddenly stop responding and stare for a few seconds, sometimes with chewing motions or smacking the lips. Seizures may also cause "sensations" that only the patient feels. As an example, one type of seizure can cause stomach discomfort, fear, or an unpleasant smell.
Such subjective feelings are commonly referred to as auras. A person usually experiences the same symptoms with each seizure aura. Sometimes, a seizure aura can occur before a convulsive seizure. Seizure triggers — A minority of people have seizure triggers, such as strong emotions, intense exercise, loud music, or flashing lights. When these triggers are at play, they usually immediately precede the seizure. Although they are more difficult to link to a seizure, other factors can also increase the likelihood that a seizure will happen.
What is a focal onset impaired awareness seizure? A focal onset seizure begins in one side of the brain. We used to call these partial seizures. · Epileptic seizures are only one manifestation of neurologic or metabolic diseases. Epileptic seizures have many causes, including a genetic predisposition. While the evaluation and treatment of patients with seizures or epilepsy is often challenging, modern therapy provides many patients with complete seizure control.
As an example, fever, menstrual periods, a lack of sleep, and stress can all increase the risk of seizures in some people. After a seizure (postictal state) — For many seizure types, you may be unaware during the seizure. When you are told about your behavior during the seizure, you may not believe it because you have no memory of the event.
The period following a seizure is called the postictal state. During this time, you may be confused and tired, and you may develop a throbbing headache. This period usually lasts several minutes, although it can last for hours or even days. In some people, the postictal period comes with certain symptoms. For example, you may experience mild to severe weakness in a hand, arm, or leg.
Other people have difficulty speaking or experience temporary (partial) vision loss or other types of sensory loss. These can be important clues about the type of seizure and the part of the brain that was affected during the seizure. SEIZURE CAUSESAs noted earlier, all seizures are not caused by epilepsy. There are three broad categories of seizure causes: ●Epileptic seizures – People with epilepsy have a type of brain dysfunction that intermittently causes episodes of abnormal electrical activity. This can be caused by any type of brain injury, such as trauma, stroke, brain infection, or a brain tumor. In some individuals, epilepsy is an inherited condition. In many cases, the cause of epileptic seizures is not clear.●Provoked seizures – A similar type of abnormal electrical activity in the brain can be caused by certain drugs, alcohol withdrawal, and other imbalances, such as a low blood sugar.
The signs and symptoms of seizures vary depending on the type. The most common type of seizure is convulsive (60%). Two-thirds of these begin as focal seizures and.
Seizures that are caused by problems like these are called "provoked" seizures, and they do not usually occur again once the problem is remedied. People with provoked seizures are not said to have epilepsy.●Nonepileptic seizures – Nonepileptic seizures look like seizures, but are not caused by abnormal brain activity.
These seizures may be due to fainting spell, a muscle disorder, or a psychological condition. SEIZURE DIAGNOSISIf you have a seizure and have never had one before, your healthcare provider will want to get as much information about the seizure as possible.
He or she will want to know a detailed description of the episode, if you lost consciousness, stared blankly, or twitched and jerked violently. The more information your healthcare provider has about your seizure, the better able he or she will be to make the right diagnosis. If a witness to the seizure is available and can come to the appointment or be contacted later, this can be very helpful to the physician.
Epilepsies: diagnosis and management Guidance and guidelines. The following guidance is based on the best available evidence. The full guideline gives details of the methods and the evidence used to develop the guidance. In this guideline, the term 'adults' is used to describe people who are aged 1. Young people' describes those who are aged 1.
Older people' is used to describe people who are aged 6. Guideline Development Group. However, it is recognised that there is a variable age range (1. Please see appendix G for definitions of abbreviations and a glossary of terms used throughout this guideline. February 2. 01. 6: The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has produced a toolkit to ensure female patients are better informed about the risks of taking valproate during pregnancy. Healthcare professionals are advised to use the NICE guideline in conjunction with the latest MHRA advice and resources. January 2. 01. 5: The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has strengthened its warnings on the use of valproate in women of childbearing potential.
We are assessing the impact of this on the guideline. In the meantime, healthcare professionals are advised to use the guideline in conjunction with the latest MHRA advice. Principle of decision making. Healthcare professionals should adopt a consulting style that enables the child, young person or adult with epilepsy, and their family and/or carers as appropriate, to participate as partners in all decisions about their healthcare, and take fully into account their race, culture and any specific needs. Coping with epilepsy.
Children, young people and adults with epilepsy and their families and/or carers should be empowered to manage their condition as well as possible. Adults should receive appropriate information and education about all aspects of epilepsy. This may be best achieved and maintained through structured self- management plans. In children and young people, self- management of epilepsy may be best achieved through active child- centred training models and interventions. Healthcare professionals should highlight the Expert Patients Programme to children, young people and adults with epilepsy who wish to manage their condition more effectively. Information. 1. 3. Children, young people and adults with epilepsy and their families and/or carers should be given, and have access to sources of, information about (where appropriate): epilepsy in generaldiagnosis and treatment optionsmedication and side effectsseizure type(s), triggers and seizure controlmanagement and self- carerisk managementfirst aid, safety and injury prevention at home and at school or workpsychological issuessocial security benefits and social servicesinsurance issueseducation and healthcare at schoolemployment and independent living for adultsimportance of disclosing epilepsy at work, if relevant (if further information or clarification is needed, voluntary organisations should be contacted)road safety and drivingprognosissudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP)status epilepticus lifestyle, leisure and social issues (including recreational drugs, alcohol, sexual activity and sleep deprivation)family planning and pregnancyvoluntary organisations, such as support groups and charitable organisations, and how to contact them.
The time at which this information should be given will depend on the certainty of the diagnosis, and the need for confirmatory investigations. [2. Information should be provided in formats, languages and ways that are suited to the child, young person or adult's requirements.
Consideration should be given to developmental age, gender, culture and stage of life of the person. If children, young people and adults, and their families and/or carers, have not already found high- quality information from voluntary organisations and other sources, healthcare professionals should inform them of different sources (using the Internet, if appropriate: see, for example, the website of the Joint Epilepsy Council of the UK and Ireland).
Adequate time should be set aside in the consultation to provide information, which should be revisited on subsequent consultations. [2. Checklists should be used to remind children, young people and adults, and healthcare professionals, about information that should be discussed during consultations.
Everyone providing care or treatment for children, young people and adults with epilepsy should be able to provide essential information. The child, young person or adult with epilepsy and their family and/or carers as appropriate should know how to contact a named individual when information is needed. This named individual should be a member of the healthcare team and be responsible for ensuring that the information needs of the child, young person or adult and/or their family and/or carers are met.
Epileptic seizure - Wikipedia. An epileptic seizure, also known as an epileptic fit, is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. The outward effect can vary from uncontrolled jerking movement (tonic- clonic seizure) to as subtle as a momentary loss of awareness (absence seizure). Diseases of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures are collectively called epilepsy.Seizures can also occur in people who do not have epilepsy for various reasons including brain trauma, drug use, elevated body temperature, low blood sugar and low levels of oxygen. Additionally, there are a number of conditions that look like epileptic seizures but are not. A first seizure generally does not require long term treatment with anti- seizure medications unless there is a specific problem on either electroencephalogram or brain imaging.5–1. About 5. 0% of patients with an unprovoked apparent "first seizure" have had other minor seizures, so their diagnosis is epilepsy. Epilepsy affects about 1% of the population currently and affected about 4% of the population at some point in time. Most of those affected—nearly 8.
Signs and symptomsThe signs and symptoms of seizures vary depending on the type. The most common type of seizure is convulsive (6. Two- thirds of these begin as focal seizures and become generalized while one third begin as generalized seizures. The remaining 4. Focal seizuresFocal seizures are often preceded by certain experiences, known as an aura. These may include: sensory, visual, psychic, autonomic, olfactory or motor phenomena.[1. In a complex partial seizure a person may appear confused or dazed and can not respond to questions or direction. Focal seizure may become generalized.[1.
Jerking activity may start in a specific muscle group and spread to surrounding muscle groups—known as a Jacksonian march.[1. Unusual activities that are not consciously created may occur.[1.
These are known as automatisms and include simple activities like smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick something up.[1. Generalized seizuresThere are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic- clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence, and atonic seizures.[1. They all involve a loss of consciousness and typically happen without warning.[1. Tonic- clonic seizures present with a contraction of the limbs followed by their extension, along with arching of the back for 1. A cry may be heard due to contraction of the chest muscles.[1. The limbs then begin to shake in unison.[1.
After the shaking has stopped it may take 1. Tonic seizures produce constant contractions of the muscles.[1. The person may turn blue if breathing is impaired.[1. Clonic seizures involve shaking of the limbs in unison.[1. Myoclonic seizures involve spasms of muscles in either a few areas or generalized through the body.[1. Absence seizures can be subtle, with only a slight turn of the head or eye blinking.[1.
The person often does not fall over and may return to normal right after the seizure ends, though there may also be a period of post- ictal disorientation.[1. Atonic seizures involve the loss of muscle activity for greater than one second.[1. This typically occurs bilaterally (on both sides of the body).[1. DurationA seizure can last from a few seconds to more than five minutes, at which point it is known as status epilepticus.[1.
Most tonic- clonic seizures last less than two or three minutes.[1. Absence seizures are usually around 1. PostictalAfter the active portion of a seizure, there is typically a period of confusion called the postictal period before a normal level of consciousness returns. This usually lasts 3 to 1. Other common symptoms include: feeling tired, headache, difficulty speaking, and abnormal behavior.[1. Psychosis after a seizure is relatively common, occurring in between 6 and 1. Often people do not remember what occurred during this time.[1.
Seizures have a number of causes. Of those with seizure about 2. A number of conditions are associated with seizures but are not epilepsy including: most febrile seizures and those that occur around an acute infection, stroke, or toxicity.[2.
These seizures are known as "acute symptomatic" or "provoked" seizures and are part of the seizure- related disorders.[2. In many the cause is unknown. Different causes of seizures are common in certain age groups. Seizures in babies are most commonly caused by hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, central nervous system (CNS) infections, trauma, congenital CNS abnormalities, and metabolic disorders. Animer Anniversaire Adulte. The most frequent cause of seizures in children is febrile seizures, which happen in 2–5% of children between the ages of six months and five years.[2. During childhood, well- defined epilepsy syndromes are generally seen.