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- About the Authors. Dr. Susan Hutchinson is an Associate Professor in the School of Health and Human Performance at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, Canada.
- Here are some great journal writing prompts - and some picture prompts to use in journaling for kids.
The Annotated Bibliography - How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography. WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY? An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 1. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. ANNOTATIONS VS. ABSTRACTSAbstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author's point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.
THE PROCESSCreating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic. Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style. Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article.
Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic. CRITICALLY APPRAISING THE BOOK, ARTICLE, OR DOCUMENTFor guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources. For information on the author's background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources. CHOOSING THE CORRECT FORMAT FOR THE CITATIONSCheck with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page. SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLEThe following example uses APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2.
Waite, L. J., Goldschneider, F. K., & Witsberger, C. Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review,5.
The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self- sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living. This example uses MLA style (MLA Handbook, 8th edition, 2. Waite, Linda J., et al.
Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self- sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.
Montessori education - Wikipedia. Children working on the phonogram moveable alphabet at a Montessori schoolThe Montessori Method of education, developed by Dr. Maria Montessori, is a child- centered educational approach based on scientific observations of children from birth to adulthood. Dr. Montessori's Method has been used for over 1. It is a view of the child as one who is naturally eager for knowledge and capable of initiating learning in a supportive, thoughtfully prepared learning environment.
It is an approach that values the human spirit and the development of the whole child—physical, social, emotional, cognitive.Although a range of practices exist under the name "Montessori", the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) cite these elements as essential: Mixed age classrooms; classrooms for children ages 2 1⁄2 or 3 to 6 years old are by far the most common, but 0–3, 6–9, 9–1. Student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options. Uninterrupted blocks of work time, ideally three hours. A constructivist or "discovery" model, where students learn concepts from working with materials, rather than by direct instruction. Specialized educational materials developed by Montessori and her collaborators often made out of natural, aesthetic materials such as wood, rather than plastic.
A thoughtfully prepared environment where materials are organized by subject area, within reach of the child, and are appropriate in size. Freedom of movement within the classroom. A trained Montessori teacher who follows the child and is highly experienced in observing the individual child's characteristics, tendencies, innate talents and abilities. HistoryFollowing her medical training, Dr. Maria Montessori began to develop her educational philosophy and methods in 1. University of Rome and reading the educational theory of the previous two hundred years. In 1.
Casa dei Bambini, or Children's House, in a tenement building in Rome. From the beginning, Montessori based her work on her observations of children and experimentation with the environment, materials, and lessons available to them. She frequently referred to her work as "scientific pedagogy". In 1. 90. 1, Maria Montessori met Alice and Leopoldo Franchetti (Baroness & Baron) of Città di Castello. Adult Cam Chat Dating Direct Lin. They found many matching points between their work. Maria Montessori was invited to hold her first course for teachers and to set up a "Casa dei Bambini" at Villa Montesca, the home of the Franchettis in Città di Castello. Maria Montessori decided to move to Città di Castello where she lived for 2 years and where she refined her methodology together with Alice Franchetti. In that period, she published her book in Città di Castello, as mentioned before.
The Franchetti Barons financed the publication of the book and the methodology had the name "Method Franchetti- Montessori", until the fascists ordered the cancellation of the baroness’ name from the Method because she was Jewish. Alice Franchetti died in 1. Montessori education had spread to the United States by 1. However, conflict between Montessori and the American educational establishment, and especially the publication in 1. The Montessori System Examined by influential education teacher William Heard Kilpatrick, limited the spread of her ideas, and they languished after 1.
Montessori education returned to the United States in 1. Montessori continued to extend her work during her lifetime, developing a comprehensive model of psychological development from birth to age 2. She wrote and lectured about ages 1. Montessori education also spread throughout the world, especially southeast Asia including India where Maria Montessori was interned during World War II. Montessori education theory. A Montessori classroom in the United States. Montessori education is fundamentally a model of human development, and an educational approach based on that model.
The model has two basic principles. First, children and developing adults engage in psychological self- construction by means of interaction with their environments.
Second, children, especially under the age of six, have an innate path of psychological development. Based on her observations, Montessori believed that children who are at liberty to choose and act freely within an environment prepared according to her model would act spontaneously for optimal development. Montessori saw universal, innate characteristics in human psychology which her son and collaborator Mario Montessori identified as "human tendencies" in 1. There is some debate about the exact list, but the following are clearly identified: Abstraction. Activity. Communication. Exactness. Exploration. Manipulation (of the environment)Order.
Orientation. Repetition. Self- Perfection.
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