Neonatal brain infection Susan Blaser, Venita Jay, Laurence E Becker and E Lee Ford-Jones.
Cerebral arteriovenous malformation - Wikipedia. A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, c. AVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain—specifically, an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebrum. Signs and symptomsThe most frequently observed problems, related to an AVM, are headaches and seizures, backaches, neckaches and eventual nausea, as the coagulated blood makes its way down to be dissolved in the individual's spinal fluid. It is supposed that 1. Other common symptoms are a pulsing noise in the head, progressive weakness and numbness and vision changes as well as debilitating, excruciating pain.In serious cases, the blood vessels rupture and there is bleeding within the brain (intracranial hemorrhage).
Nevertheless, in more than half of patients with AVM, hemorrhage is the first symptom. Symptoms due to bleeding include loss of consciousness, sudden and severe headache, nausea, vomiting, incontinence, and blurred vision, amongst others. Impairments caused by local brain tissue damage on the bleed site are also possible, including seizure, one- sided weakness (hemiparesis), a loss of touch sensation on one side of the body and deficits in language processing (aphasia). Ruptured AVMs are responsible for considerable mortality and morbidity.AVMs in certain critical locations may stop the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, causing accumulation of the fluid within the skull and giving rise to a clinical condition called hydrocephalus. A stiff neck can occur as the result of increased pressure within the skull and irritation of the meninges. PathophysiologyAVMs are an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the human brain.
Arteriovenous malformations are most commonly of prenatal origin. The cause of AVMs remains unknown. In a normal brain oxygen enriched blood from the heart travels in sequence through smaller blood vessels going from arteries, to arterioles and then capillaries. Oxygen is removed in the latter vessel to be used by the brain. After the oxygen is removed blood reaches venules and later veins which will take it back to the heart and lungs. On the other hand, when there is an AVM blood goes directly from arteries to veins through the abnormal vessels disrupting the normal circulation of blood.Diagnosis. Vein of Galen thrombosis from ventricular puncture, not to be mistaken for an aneurysmal malformation.
An AVM diagnosis is established by neuroimaging studies after a complete neurological and physical examination. Three main techniques are used to visualize the brain and search for AVM: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebral angiography. A CT scan of the head is usually performed first when the subject is symptomatic. It can suggest the approximate site of the bleed. MRI is more sensitive than CT in the diagnosis of AVMs and provides better information about the exact location of the malformation. More detailed pictures of the tangle of blood vessels that compose an AVM can be obtained by using radioactive agents injected into the blood stream. If a CT is used in conjunctiangiogram, this is called a computerized tomography angiogram; while, if MRI is used it is called magnetic resonance angiogram. The best images of an AVM are obtained through cerebral angiography. This procedure involves using a catheter, threaded through an artery up to the head, to deliver a contrast agent into the AVM. As the contrast agent flows through the AVM structure, a sequence of X- ray images are obtained.GradingSpetzler- Martin (SM) GradeA common method of grading cerebral AVMs is the Spetzler- Martin (SM) grade. This system was designed to assess the patient's risk of neurological deficit after open surgical resection (surgical morbidity), based on characteristics of the AVM itself. Based on this system, AVMs may be classified as grades 1 - 5.
This system was not intended to characterize risk of hemorrhage. AVM size. Adjacent eloquent cortex. Draining veins. Under 3 cm = 1. Non- eloquent = 0. Superficial only = 0. Eloquent* = 1. Deep veins = 1.
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Hydrocephalus - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Pictures, in adults, babies and infants. This happens when excessive fluid amasses in the brain, mainly due to an. We randomly assigned eligible participants with intracerebral hemorrhage (volume, <60 cm 3) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5 or more (on a scale from 3 to 15.
Over 6 cm = 3"Eloquent cortex" is a name used by neurologists for areas of cortex that, if removed will result in loss of sensory processing or linguistic ability, minor paralysis, or paralysis. The risk of post- surgical neurological deficit (difficulty with language, motor weakness, vision loss) increases with increasing Spetzler- Martin grade. Supplemented Spetzler- Martin (SM- supp, Lawton- Young) GradeA limitation of the Spetzler- Martin Grading system is that it does not include the following factors: Patient age, hemorrhage, diffuseness of nidus, and arterial supply. In 2. 01. 0 a new supplemented Spetzler- Martin system (SM- supp, Lawton- Young) was devised adding these variables to the SM system. Under this new system AVMs are classified from grades 1 - 1.
- Retinal Hemorrhage Study (separate page) Shaken Baby Syndrome: Retinal Hemorrhages The triad of symptoms used to diagnose SBS.
- The terms intracerebral hemorrhage and hemorrhagic stroke are used interchangeably in this article and are regarded as separate entities from hemorrhagic.
- Quincke performed the first lumbar puncture (LP) in 1891 to relieve increased intracranial pressure in children with tuberculous meningitis. This technique subsequently became.
ACC/AHA 2. 00. 8 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary. Preamble…2. 39. 81. Introduction…2. 39. Methodology and Evidence Review…2.
Organization of Committee and Relationships With Industry…2. Document Review and Approval…2. Epidemiology and Scope of the Problem…2. Recommendations for Delivery of Care and Ensuring Access…2. Recommendations for Access to Care…2. Recommendations for Psychosocial Issues…2.
Transition of Care…2. Recommendations for Infective Endocarditis…2. Recommendations for Noncardiac Surgery…2. Recommendations for Pregnancy and Contraception…2. Contraception…2. 40. Recommendations for Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Management…2.
Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease…2. Recommendations for Hematologic Problems…2. Hemostasis…2. 40.
Renal Function…2. Gallstones…2. 40. Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Complications…2.
Neurological Complications…2. Recommendations for General Health Issues for Cyanotic Patients…2. Hospitalization and Operation…2. Recommendations for Heart and Heart/Lung Transplantation…2.
Atrial Septal Defect…2. Unrepaired Atrial Septal Defect…2.
Recommendations for Evaluation of the Unoperated Patient…2. Management Strategies…2. Recommendations for Medical Therapy…2. Recommendations for Interventional and Surgical Therapy…2.
Indications for Closure of Atrial Septal Defect…2. Recommendations for Postintervention Follow- Up…2. Recommendation for Reproduction…2.
Ventricular Septal Defect…2. Recommendations for Cardiac Catheterization…2. Management Strategies…2.
Recommendation for Medical Therapy…2. Recommendations for Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure…2. Recommendation for Interventional Catheterization…2. Key Issues to Evaluate and Follow- Up…2.
Recommendations for Surgical and Catheter Intervention Follow- Up…2. Recommendation for Reproduction…2. Atrioventricular Septal Defect…2. Recommendation for Heart Catheterization…2. Recommendations for Surgical Therapy…2.
Recommendations for Endocarditis Prophylaxis…2. Recommendations for Pregnancy…2. Patent Ductus Arteriosus…2.
Recommendations for Evaluation of the Unoperated Patient…2. Management Strategies…2. Recommendations for Medical Therapy…2. Recommendations for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus…2.
Surgical/Interventional Therapy…2. Causes Blocked Tear Ducts Adults. Key Issues to Evaluate and Follow- Up…2. Left- Sided Heart Obstructive Lesions: Aortic Valve Disease, Subvalvular and Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis, Associated Disorders of the Ascending Aorta, and Coarctation…2. Associated Lesions…2. Recommendations for Evaluation of the Unoperated Patient…2.
Problems and Pitfalls…2. Management Strategies for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction and Associated Lesions…2. Recommendations for Medical Therapy…2. Catheter and Surgical Intervention…2. Recommendations for Catheter Interventions for Adults With Valvular Aortic Stenosis …2.
Recommendations for Aortic Valve Repair/Replacement and Aortic Root Replacement…2. Recommendations for Key Issues to Evaluate and Follow- Up…2. Isolated Subaortic Stenosis…2.
Clinical Course With/Without Previous Intervention…2. Recommendations for Surgical Intervention…2. Recommendations for Key Issues to Evaluate and Follow- Up…2.
Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis…2. Clinical Course (Unrepaired)…2. Recommendations for Evaluation of the Unoperated Patient…2. Imaging…2. 41. 9 6. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging…2. Cardiac Catheterization…2.
Management Strategies for Supravalvular Left Ventricular Outflow Tract…2. Recommendations for Interventional and Surgical Therapy…2. Recommendations for Key Issues to Evaluate and Follow- Up…2. Recommendations for Reproduction…2. Aortic Coarctation…2.
Recommendations for Clinical Evaluation and Follow- Up…2. Management Strategies for Coarctation of the Aorta…2. Medical Therapy…2. Recommendations for Interventional and Surgical Treatment of Coarctation of the Aorta in Adults…2. Recommendations for Key Issues to Evaluate and Follow- Up…2. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction…2. Valvular Pulmonary Stenosis…2.
Recommendations for Evaluation of the Unoperated Patient…2. Management Strategies…2. Recommendations for Intervention in Patients With Valvular Pulmonary Stenosis…2. Recommendation for Clinical Evaluation and Follow- Up After Intervention…2. Right- Sided Heart Obstruction due to Supravalvular, Branch, and Peripheral Pulmonary Artery Stenosis…2. Clinical Course…2.
Recommendations for Evaluation of Patients With Supravalvular, Branch, and Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis…2. Recommendations for Interventional Therapy in the Management of Branch and Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis…2.
Recommendations for Evaluation and Follow- Up…2. Right- Sided Heart Obstruction Due to Stenotic Right Ventricular–Pulmonary Artery Conduits or Bioprosthetic Valves…2. Recommendation for Evaluation and Follow- Up After Right Ventricular–Pulmonary Artery Conduit or Prosthetic Valve…2. Echocardiography…2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging/ Computed Tomography…2.
Stroke - Wikipedia. Stroke. Synonyms. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), brain attack. CT scan of the brain showing a right- hemisphericischemic stroke. Specialty. Neurology. Symptoms. Inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, loss of vision to one sideComplications.
Persistent vegetative stateCauses. Ischemic and hemorrhagicRisk factors.
High blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, atrial fibrillationDiagnostic method. Based on symptoms and medical imagingSimilar conditions. Low blood sugarTreatment. Based on the typePrognosis. Average life expectancy 1 yearFrequency.
Deaths. 6. 3 million (2. Stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini- stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long- term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes.[1. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes.[1. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes.Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation. A stroke or TIA often requires emergency care. An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot. Aspirin should be used. Some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from surgery. Treatment to try to recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.In 2.
In 2. 01. 5 there were about 4. Between 1. 99. 0 and 2. In 2. 01. 5, stroke was the second most frequent cause of death after coronary artery disease, accounting for 6.
About 3. 0 million deaths resulted from ischemic stroke while 3. About half of people who have had a stroke live less than one year. Overall, two thirds of strokes occurred in those over 6.
Classification. Strokes can be classified into two major categories: ischemic and hemorrhagic.[1. Ischemic strokes are caused by interruption of the blood supply to the brain, while hemorrhagic strokes result from the rupture of a blood vessel or an abnormal vascular structure. About 8. 7% of strokes are ischemic, the rest being hemorrhagic. Bleeding can develop inside areas of ischemia, a condition known as "hemorrhagic transformation." It is unknown how many hemorrhagic strokes actually start as ischemic strokes.Definition. In the 1. 97. 0s the World Health Organization defined stroke as a "neurological deficit of cerebrovascular cause that persists beyond 2. This definition was supposed to reflect the reversibility of tissue damage and was devised for the purpose, with the time frame of 2.
The 2. 4- hour limit divides stroke from transient ischemic attack, which is a related syndrome of stroke symptoms that resolve completely within 2. With the availability of treatments which can reduce stroke severity when given early, many now prefer alternative terminology, such as brain attack and acute ischemic cerebrovascular syndrome (modeled after heart attack and acute coronary syndrome, respectively), to reflect the urgency of stroke symptoms and the need to act swiftly.[1.
Ischemic. In an ischemic stroke, blood supply to part of the brain is decreased, leading to dysfunction of the brain tissue in that area.