Intravenous Fluid Therapy In Adults

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Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) - Rehydration Project. Magic Bullet: The History. Oral Rehydration Therapypdf. Joshua Nalibow Ruxinhttp: //www. Med Hist. 1. 99. 4 October; 3.

PMCID: PMC1. 03. 69. The Oral Rehydration Therapy.

The Canadian Journal of Paediatrics 1. Oral rehydration therapy with an inexpensive glucose and electrolyte solution as.

World Health Organization has reduced substantially the number. In addition, recent research. Yet. oral rehydration therapy has not been used extensively in developed countries. Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common illnesses affecting infants and. Canada and the world. The average child under age 5 experiences 2. Treatment from resulting dehydration accounts for.

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Fluid Therapy in Neonates •Reasons for intravenous fluid therapyReasons for intravenous fluid therapy •Fluid therapy in neonatal hypovolemiaFluid therapy in. Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Shock and Fluid Resuscitation from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. Perioperative maintenance of adequate intravascular volume status is important to achieve optimal outcomes after surgery, but there are controversies regarding both.

Intravenous Fluid Therapy In Adults

U. S. 2 with comparable. Canada. Worldwide as many as 4,0. Prolonged diarrhea. Canadian. native populations.

Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), using a simple, inexpensive, glucose and. World Health Organization (WHO) has reduced. In spite of its efficacy, ORT has not been used extensively in. Recent research, summarized in this report, suggests that. In an effort to encourage the use of ORT, a simple approach to rehydration is. Oral rehydration takes advantage of glucose- coupled sodium transport,4 a process. Glucose enhances sodium, and secondarily, water transport across the mucosa of.

For optimal absorption, the composition of the rehydration. The amount of fluid absorbed depends on three factors: the. Maximal water uptake occurs with a sodium concentration from 4. L, a glucose concentration from 1.

L (2. 0 to 2. 5 g/1. L) and an osmolarity of about 2. Osm/L, the osmolarity of body fluids. Increasing the sodium beyond 9. L may result in hypernatremia; increasing. Osm/L, by increasing the osmolarity of the. CHO to Na ratio should not exceed.

For practical purposes in Canada, rehydration can be accomplished using. L. These are termed rehydration.

ORS). Prophylaxis of dehydration and maintenance involve solutions. L of sodium. These are termed maintenance solutions. High sodium. rehydrating solutions used to treat acute dehydration may be used for. CHO fluids, or breast milk. The. high sodium ORS should not be used as the sole fluid intake for maintenance of. Fruit juices and pop are not efficacious because of their high. Individualized dietary management of the patient during acute diarrhea is the.

Oral rehydration and maintenance solutions presently in use, although effective. The challenge, therefore, is to. This has been done successfully by substituting short chain glucose polymers. In field trials in developing countries,8,9 ORS containing glucose.

ORS, but also to offer the additional. The. effectiveness in diarrhea typical of North America may be less marked, i. Defined short- chained glucose polymers from rice may also be safe and effective.

Wapnir et al. 11 found that a solution. L of rice syrup solids (1. Osm/L) resulted in 4. L of glucose (2. 30 m. Osm/L). A clinical study with solutions containing rice- syrup solids confirmed their.

Further, such. solutions decreased stool output, and promoted greater absorption and retention. Amino acids have also been suggested as additives to ORS. The addition of. alanine alone to the WHO oral rehydration solution (ORS) was not found to give. However, Khin- Maung- U and Greenough.

ORS, decreased the amounts of stool by a. Nevertheless, these are not currently recommended by WHO. Rice- based corn and lentil- based oral rehydration solutions have been.

Along with improved oral rehydration solutions have come advances in the field. Fasting has been shown to prolong diarrhea. This may be due. to undernutrition of the bowel mucosa which delays the replacement of mucosal. Although there is general agreement that. Early refeeding should. On the basis of these findings and recent recommendations, 1. Fluid therapy should include the following three elements: rehydration.

Fluid therapy is based on an assessment of the degree of dehydration present. Principles are as follows: No dehydration - If diarrhea is present, but urinary output is normal, the. High osmolarity fluids such as undiluted juices should be avoided. Na 4. 5- 6. 0 mmol/L) offered "ad libitum.". Mild - If symptoms and signs are limited to decreased urinary output and. Assessment and treatment under.

Rehydration consists of ORS or maintenance. L/kg/hr with reassessment at 4- hour intervals. Breast- feeding. continues. Early refeeding with the child's customary formula at the usual. Extra ORS or maintenance solution (e. L/kg). may be given after each stool if diarrhea persists.

Moderate - If at least two of the following signs, sunken eyes, loss of skin. ORS 1. 5- 2. 0 m. L/kg/hr with direct observation and reassessment at. If dehydration is corrected, therapy for ongoing losses and. If not, treatment is repeated as. Severe - If, in addition to signs of moderate dehydration, there is rapid. Blood. pressure should be measured.

Prompt intravenous therapy is indicated with rapid. L/kg over 3. 0 minutes may be necessary).

Intraosseous infusion should be used if. General comments. Adhd Adults India.

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Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses. INDICATIONSTreatment. MEFOXIN is indicated for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the diseases listed below. Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia and lung abscess, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (excluding enterococci, e. Enterococcus faecalis [formerly Streptococcus faecalis]), Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinaseproducing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacteroides species. Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia species (including P. Intra- abdominal infections, including peritonitis and intra- abdominal abscess, caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species including Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium species.

Gynecological infections, including endometritis, pelviccellulitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase- producing strains), Bacteroides species including B. Clostridium species, Peptococcus niger, Peptostreptococcus species, and Streptococcus agalactiae. MEFOXIN, like cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when MEFOXIN is used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and C. Septicemia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase- producing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Bacteroides species including B. Bone and joint infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including Penicillinaseproducing strains).

Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase- producing strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and other streptococci (excluding enterococci e. Enterococcus faecalis [formerly Streptococcus faecalis]), Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species including B. Clostridium species, Peptococcus niger, and Peptostreptococcus species. Appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed to determine the susceptibility of the causative organisms to MEFOXIN. Therapy may be started while awaiting the results of these studies. In randomized comparative studies, MEFOXIN and cephalothin were comparably safe and effective in the management of infections caused by gram- positive cocci and gram- negative rods susceptible to the cephalosporins. MEFOXIN has a high degree of stability in the presence of bacterial beta- lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases.

Many infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic gram- negative bacteria resistant to some cephalosporins respond to MEFOXIN. Similarly, many infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria resistant to some penicillin antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, penicillin G) respond to treatment with MEFOXIN. Many infections caused by mixtures of susceptible aerobic and anaerobic bacteria respond to treatment with MEFOXIN. Prevention. MEFOXIN is indicated for the prophylaxis of infection in patients undergoing uncontaminated gastrointestinal surgery, vaginal hysterectomy, abdominal hysterectomy, or cesarean section. If there are signs of infection, specimens for culture should be obtained for identification of the causative organism so that appropriate treatment may be instituted. To reduce the development of drug- resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of MEFOXIN and other antibacterial drugs, MEFOXIN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy.

In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATIONTreatment. Adults. The usual adult dosage range is 1 gram to 2 grams every 6 to 8 hours. Dosage should be determined by susceptibility of the causative organisms, severity of infection, and the condition of the patient (see Table 3 for dosage guidelines).

If C. trachomatis is a suspected pathogen, appropriate anti- chlamydial coverage should be added, because cefoxitin sodium has no activity against this organism. MEFOXIN may be used in patients with reduced renal function with the following dosage adjustments: In adults with renal insufficiency, an initial loading dose of 1 gram to 2 grams may be given. After a loading dose, the recommendations for maintenance dosage (Table 4) may be used as a guide. When only the serum creatinine level is available, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to convert this value into creatinine clearance.