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List of cognitive biases - Wikipedia. Cognitive biases can be organized into four categories: biases that arise from too much information, not enough meaning, the need to act quickly, and the limits of memory.Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.Although the reality of these biases is confirmed by replicable research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. Some are effects of information- processing rules (i. Such effects are called cognitive biases. Biases have a variety of forms and appear as cognitive ("cold") bias, such as mental noise, or motivational ("hot") bias, such as when beliefs are distorted by wishful thinking.
Both effects can be present at the same time.There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. However, this kind of confirmation bias has also been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person.Although this research overwhelmingly involves human subjects, some findings that demonstrate bias have been found in non- human animals as well.
For example, hyperbolic discounting has been observed in rats, pigeons, and monkeys.[1. Decision- making, belief, and behavioral biasesMany of these biases affect belief formation, business and economic decisions, and human behavior in general. Name. Description.
Ambiguity effect. The tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown".[1. Anchoring or focalism. The tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor", on one trait or piece of information when making decisions (usually the first piece of information acquired on that subject)[1. Anthropocentric thinking. The tendency to use human analogies as a basis for reasoning about other, less familiar, biological phenomena.[1.
Anthropomorphism or personification. The tendency to characterize animals, objects, and abstract concepts as possessing human- like traits, emotions, and intentions.[1. Attentional bias. The tendency of our perception to be affected by our recurring thoughts.[1. Automation bias. The tendency to depend excessively on automated systems which can lead to erroneous automated information overriding correct decisions.[1.
Availability heuristic. The tendency to overestimate the likelihood of events with greater "availability" in memory, which can be influenced by how recent the memories are or how unusual or emotionally charged they may be.[1. Availability cascade. A self- reinforcing process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its increasing repetition in public discourse (or "repeat something long enough and it will become true").[1. Backfire effect. The reaction to disconfirming evidence by strengthening one's previous beliefs.[2. Continued influence effect. Bandwagon effect.
The tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. Related to groupthink and herd behavior.[2. Base rate fallacy or Base rate neglect. The tendency to ignore base rate information (generic, general information) and focus on specific information (information only pertaining to a certain case).[2. Belief bias. An effect where someone's evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by the believability of the conclusion.[2. Ben Franklin effect.
A person who has performed a favor for someone is more likely to do another favor for that person than they would be if they had received a favor from that person. Berkson's paradox. The tendency to misinterpret statistical experiments involving conditional probabilities. Bias blind spot. The tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people, or to be able to identify more cognitive biases in others than in oneself.[2.
Cheerleader effect. The tendency for people to appear more attractive in a group than in isolation.[2. Choice- supportive bias.
The tendency to remember one's choices as better than they actually were.[2. Clustering illusion. Fill Plastic Easter Eggs For Adults on this page. The tendency to overestimate the importance of small runs, streaks, or clusters in large samples of random data (that is, seeing phantom patterns).[1. Confirmation bias.
The tendency to search for, interpret, focus on and remember information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions.[2. Congruence bias. The tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, instead of testing possible alternative hypotheses.[1.
Conjunction fallacy. The tendency to assume that specific conditions are more probable than general ones.[2. Conservatism (belief revision)The tendency to revise one's belief insufficiently when presented with new evidence.[2.