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Gastroesophageal Reflux. At one time or another, many adults have had heartburn (an uncomfortable feeling in the chest) after eating a big meal or spicy foods. When these symptoms happen often or aren't tied to certain ingredients, they might be due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER), also called reflux. But GER isn't just a problem for adults — kids can have it, too, even babies.
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In infants, it can cause vomiting and fussiness after feeding. And in older kids and teens, GER can lead to heartburn, and stomach and chest discomfort. Most kids outgrow GER over time but some will need medical treatment. Reflux that causes problems like poor growth, vomiting, or damage to the esophagus is called GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
GERD is more serious than GER and is usually treated with medicine. About GERThe burping, heartburn, and spitting up associated with GER are the result of acidic stomach contents moving backward into the esophagus.
This can happen because the muscle that connects the esophagus to the stomach (the esophageal sphincter) relaxes at the wrong time or doesn't properly close. Many people have reflux regularly and it's not usually a cause for concern. But with GER, reflux happens more often and causes noticeable discomfort. After nearly all meals, GER causes heartburn (also known as acid indigestion), which feels like a burning sensation in the chest, neck, and throat.
In babies with GER, breast milk or formula regularly refluxes into the esophagus, and sometimes out of the mouth. Sometimes babies regurgitate forcefully or have "wet burps." Most babies outgrow GER between the time they are 1 or 2 years old. But in some cases, GER symptoms last. Kids with developmental or neurological conditions, such as cerebral palsy, are more at risk for GER and can have more severe, lasting symptoms. Symptoms of GERHeartburn is the most common symptom of GER in kids and teens. It can last up to 2 hours and tends to be worse after meals.
In babies and young children, GER can lead to problems during and after feeding, including: frequent regurgitation or vomiting, especially after mealschoking or wheezing (if the contents of the reflux get into the windpipe and lungs)wet burps or wet hiccupsspitting up that continues beyond a child's first birthday (when it stops for most babies)irritability or inconsolable crying after eatingrefusing to eat or eating only small amountsfailure to gain weight. Some of these symptoms may become worse if a baby lies down or is placed in a car seat after a meal.
Thyroid Cancer Types, Stages and Treatment Overview. Disclaimer. In addition to the material on this page, the Newly Diagnosed section has about 3. Thyroid Cancer Basics: Free 5. Handbook in. English Spanish Chinese Italian Russian. Falmouth Adult Education on this page. Find a Thyroid Specialist.
Free Videos with Experts. Staging Information. The 2. 01. 8 Updates to the Staging System for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Papillary, Follicular, Hurthle Cell, and Variants. In the 2. 01. 8 staging guidelines from the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC), patients under age 5. Hurthle cell thyroid cancer, or their variants, are considered lower risk than patients age 5.
The following information was obtained from the National Cancer Institute. Table of Contents.
Stage Explanation. Treatment Option Overview Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancer in Patients Younger than 4. Years of Age- Stage I Papillary & Follicular Thyroid Cancer - Stage II Papillary & Follicular Thyorid Cancer.
Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancer in Patients 4. Years of Age and Older - Stage I Papillary Thyroid Cancer- Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer- Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer- Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer. Medullary Thyroid Cancer - Stage 0 Medullary Thyroid Cancer - Stage I Medullary Thyroid Cancer- Stage II Medullary Thyroid Cancer- Stage III Medullary Thyroid Cancer- Stage IV Medullary Thyroid Cancer. Most Popular Party Themes For Adults.
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. DESCRIPTIONWhat is cancer of the thyroid? Cancer of the thyroid is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is at the base of the throat.
It has two lobes, one on the right side and one on the left. The thyroid gland makes important hormones that help the body function normally. Cancer of the thyroid is more common in women than in men. Most patients are between 2. People who have been exposed to large amounts of radiation, or who have had radiation treatment for medical problems in the head and neck have a higher chance of getting thyroid cancer. The cancer may not occur until 2.
A doctor should be seen if there is a lump or swelling in the front of the neck or in other parts of the neck. If there are symptoms, a doctor will feel the patient's thyroid and check for lumps in the neck. The doctor may order blood tests and special scans to see whether a lump in the thyroid is making too many hormones. The doctor may want to take a small amount of tissue from the thyroid. This is called a biopsy. To do this, a small needle is inserted into the thyroid at the base of the throat and some tissue is drawn out. The tissue is then looked at under a microscope to see whether it contains cancer.
There are four main types of cancer of the thyroid (based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope): papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. The chance of recovery (prognosis) depends on the type of thyroid cancer, whether it is just in the thyroid or has spread to other parts of the body (stage), and the patient's age and overall health. Some types of thyroid cancer grow much faster than others. The genes in our cells carry the hereditary information from our parents. An abnormal gene has been found in patients with some forms of thyroid cancer.
If medullary thyroid cancer is found, the patient may have been born with a certain abnormal gene which may have led to the cancer. Family members may have also inherited this abnormal gene. Tests have been developed to determine who has the genetic defect long before any cancer appears. It is important that the patient and his or her family members (children, grandchildren, parents, brothers, sisters, nieces and nephews) see a doctor about tests that will show if the abnormal gene is present. These tests are confidential and can help the doctor help patients. Family members, including young children, who don't have cancer, but do have this abnormal gene, may reduce the chance of developing medullary thyroid cancer by having surgery to safely remove the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy).
STAGE EXPLANATIONStages of cancer of the thyroid. Once cancer of the thyroid is found (diagnosed), more tests will be done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. This is called staging. A doctor needs to know the stage of the disease to plan treatment. The following stages are used for papillary cancers of the thyroid: Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancer in Patients Younger than 4.
Years of Age: Stage I Papillary and Follicular. In stage I papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, the tumor is any size, may be in the thyroid, or may have spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes. Cancer has not spread to other parts of the body.
Stage II Papillary and Follicular. In stage II papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, the tumor is any size and cancer has spread from the thyroid to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bone, and may have spread to lymph nodes. Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancer in Patients Older than 4.