Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less. Breastfeeding as Related to Autism and Childhood Cancer in Developed Countries. by Donald P. Meulenberg * Introductory Summary: The greatly increasing numbers of.
African Americans and Autism. African Americans and Autism. Our African Americans and Autism page will share information and resources as it relates specifically to autism and people of color. Although our loved one's development was no longer on target by age three, as he had slowly become non- verbal over time, he was not diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder until age 5½. The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and others report black children have significantly higher rates of mild mental retardation than white children do and socioeconomic factors cannot explain the differences.
In my eagerness to pivot back to an area of my interest after having had a little fun with anti-vaccine cranks, I ignored a paper to which several of my readers.
Yeargin- Allsopp M, Drews CD, Decoufle P, Murphy CC Mild mental retardation in black and white children in metropolitan Atlanta: a case- control study. Am J Public Health. Mar; 8. 5(3): 3. 24–8. Drews CD, Yeargin- Allsopp M, Decoufle P, Murphy CC Variation in the influence of selected sociodemographic risk factors for mental retardation. Am J Public Health. Mar; 8. 5(3): 3. 29–3.
Parents, and in particular African American parents should be persistent in getting their health care provider to listen and to act on your concerns. Children with autism are expected to have a better prognosis with early diagnosis and. African Americans and Autism: Early Intervention. A recent national study found. The length of time from concerns to early intervention for children with developmental disabilities is much longer than the 5.
Nationally Accredited Continuing Education Courses for Psychologists, Social Workers, Counselors, and Marriage and Family Therapists. Autism Spectrum Disorder. As early as 1993, authors and researchers have referred to the various pervasive developmental disorders as autism spectrum disorder (Rutter. What Are the Benefits of Juicing Bok Choy? Bok choy, a relative of cabbage, broccoli and kale, makes up an important part of Chinese cuisine. Its mild flavor allows. "The trouble is that once you see it, you can't unsee it. And once you've seen it, keeping quiet, saying nothing, becomes as political an act as speaking out.
Children with developmental disabilities on average enter early intervention at age 2. Parents of children with developmental delays had more difficulty than parents of children with established conditions or children at risk. Minority families and families with lower incomes or limited education had more difficulty entering the early intervention system. Some families were not aware of a written plan for goals and services. National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study through a grant from the U. S. Department of Education to SRI.
International and FPG Child Development Institute. African Americans and. Autism: Research. Gene interaction raises autism risk in blacks and whites. This study is the first to examine the genetics of autism in African Americans, even though the disorder occurs equally across ethnic groups. Gene studies in African- American autism families are rare.
Duke University researchers believe the finding will be critical to developing new treatments for both African Americans and Whites. The study of 5. 4 African American families and 5. Caucasian families in which a member had autism were analyzed. Researchers analyzed genes that regulate a brain chemical or neurotransmitter called GABA along chromosome 1. Chromosome 1. 5 has been linked to autism. GABA slows down nerve cells from firing once their message has been transmitted. In this way, the neurotransmitter acts as an information filter that prevents the brain from becoming over- stimulated.
If the GABA system malfunctions, the brain can be flooded with sensory information that overwhelms the brain's processing capabilities, leading to some of the behaviors that characterize autism, said Michael Cuccaro, Ph. D ., a Duke clinical psychologist and study co- author. According to a study co- author, if the GABA system malfunctions, the brain can be flooded with sensory information that overwhelms the brain's processing capabilities leading to some of the behaviors that characterize autism. Researchers found that in African Americans and Caucasians, the contact of two malfunctioning GABA receptor genes - - GABRB1 and GABRA4 - - can increase the risk of autism. GABA receptors are docking sites on the surface of brain cell neurons. GABA binds to these docking sites and keeps the neurons from firing.
GABRA4 increases the risk of autism, and its communication with GABRB1 further increases the risk of autism. Autism medications, including diazepam (a sedative) and certain antiepileptic drugs already target the GABA system in a wide- ranging manner. Understanding the precise gene to gene interaction may help scientists develop new drugs that specifically target the genes. Scientists believe as many as 1.
Each ethnic group has unique genes that can interact with autism- associated genes to slightly change the course of the disease. For example, certain symptoms associated with autism, such as delayed language development and problems handling daily life tasks, are more severe in African American individuals with autism than in Caucasians. Such differences make it important to understand the range of underlying genes that add to the disorder in other ethnic groups.
The most effective drugs are those which aim at the specific genes that are malfunctioning, so researchers must look further to identify which genes play a role for each ethnic group. Study by National Institutes of Health, the National Alliance of Autism Research, the Hussman Foundation and the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange.
Management of mental ill health in people with autism spectrum disorder. Kitty- Rose Foley Julian N Trollor Background. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require medical assessment and care, especially for mental health conditions. Although substantial knowledge and resources are available regarding the management of mental ill health in children with ASD, substantial gaps remain for adults with ASD. Diagnostic overshadowing, limitations of communication skills and the heterogeneous nature of this patient population can make practice in this area more challenging, and can contribute to poorer outcomes, including overprescribing of psychotropic medications. Objective/s. This article aims to describe mental ill health and identify specific considerations for GPs during the assessment and management of adults with ASD.
Discussion. The incorporation of specific knowledge and adaptations in the areas of communication, awareness of physical health comorbidities, management of challenging behaviour, impact of the environment, role of carers and an approach that values neurodiversity has the potential to positively influence mental health outcomes of adults with ASD. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour and interests. Prevalence of autism in children varies according to the methodology and country of the study. Yet, it is widely accepted that autism affects approximately 1% of children,2 which is an increase since the 1. This may reflect the increased availability of diagnostic services and awareness among professionals and parents, widening of diagnostic criteria, and/or a real increase in prevalence. Service provision for individuals with ASD is dominated by paediatric services, with adult services reported as inadequate. Barriers to service access and appropriate care for adults with ASD include inadequate training and awareness in health professionals, diagnostic overshadowing, lack of specific autism mental health services, and a lack of coordination and communication between agencies.
Primary care physicians have reported that they would like more training in caring for adults with ASD. Dating One Night Stand. A surprising 2. 3% of a large cohort (n = 1. ASD- specific training,7 highlighting the unmet need for training in developmental disabilities in undergraduate and postgraduate medical courses.
Adults with ASD represent a heterogeneous population; individual skills and challenges range considerably and change depending on environmental factors, available supports and stressors. The prevalence of ASD in adults has been reported to be approximately 1%, which is similar to that for children. This article describes mental ill health in adults with ASD and outlines specific considerations that general practitioners (GPs) could implement to improve consultations with adults with ASD. Table 1 summarises some of the key factors for GPs to consider when caring for these individuals. Table 1. Summary of key considerations for GPs. General considerations for GP consultations with adults with autism spectrum disorders. Potential influence on mental health.
Prior to the consultation. Ask the patient or carer to bring their personal health record. Determine any specific requirements (mobility or sensory)Arrange for a longer appointment time where appropriate. Improves clinical assessment. Optimises experience in further medical appointments. Communication. Simplifying language. Leave pauses and wait.
Communicate one idea at a time. Speak in a normal tone. Avoid ambiguous language. Consider most appropriate communication style (eg written, verbal)Consider using multiple techniques (eg message supported by written materials)Improved communication will improve accuracy and quality of assessment. Changes in communication may reflect changes in mental health. Challenging behaviour.
Perform a hierarchical assessment, which considers the contribution from medical and psychiatric disorders. Refer to appropriate specialist behaviour support or specialist psychiatrist. Untreated medical and psychiatric disorders commonly exacerbate challenging behaviour. Poorly managed challenging behaviour leads to exclusion from participation, which may have a negative impact on mental health. Carers. Carers can assist GPs with valuable personal information about the adult on the spectrum (eg changes in behaviour, communication, nutritional uptake and previous medical history)Refer carers to support services where appropriate. Carer stress and poor mental health can influence the mental health of individuals on the autism spectrum.
Physical health comorbidities. People on the autism spectrum experience similar physical health problems to the general population. Screen for common comorbidities.
Annual general health checkups and routine preventive screening measures are recommended. Strong interaction of both physical and medical health.
Home. Role of Nutrition and Special Diets in Autism. Nutritional needs are different for children and adults with autism, as they very often suffer from various nutrient deficiencies. Recent research has also confirmed that, contrary to commonly- held beliefs, the presence of gut and nutritional problems in children with autism is in most cases not due to picky eating or receiving medication. The real biological reasons for nutrient deficiencies in autism are still not entirely clear, and may differ from individual to individual, but are thought to be due mostly to impaired digestion and absorption of nutrients from the gut, as well as the increased need for these nutrients by the body. The body of a person with autism – cells, tissue and various body systems – is under constant stress, and the need for quality nutrients is high.
Children and adults with autism suffer from health problems much more commonly than their peers. These health problems can include seizures, headaches, gastrointestinal problems, metabolic and mitochondrial conditions, compromised immune system including allergies and autoimmune disorders and many more (for references see our scientific review Medical Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder). It is also a sad fact that mortality is significantly increased in autism, with much higher death rates than in the general population. Symptoms of health problems in autism are not always visible on the surface or easy to detect, but they may influence the child’s behaviour, worsen severity of their autism- related symptoms, and undermine their quality of life. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of these health issues can often lead to an improvement in many symptoms. It is important to remember that autism is not a single condition but includes many diverse groups of individuals who are affected by autism for different underlying biological reasons and suffer from different comorbid health problems. It is therefore not surprising that no single health concern, including nutritional deficiencies or food sensitivities, will impact every individual with autism, nor is any single treatment approach appropriate for all.
While, for example, dietary intervention in particular is reported to be beneficial in a large number of cases, there is no ‘one size fits all’ diet. Similarly, treatment with nutritional supplements that address metabolic problems are shown to have life- changing effects in some children and adults with autism, but have no effect at all in others. However, while it is often not clear if simply supplementing nutrients that are lacking will bring about visible improvements in person’s symptoms, it stands to reason that supplementing what is missing will at least prevent the body being pushed into further stress and developing more serious health problems later in life (see section 2. Westminster Commission report). Many individuals with autism have low levels of certain vitamins and minerals, including: zinc, magnesium, iron, vitamins B- 6 and B- 1.
D and E, and folates. Supplementing some of those nutrients can not only normalise their levels but can address some of the underlying biomedical problems frequently found in autism, such as immune abnormalities or metabolic problems, and is sometimes reported to result in improvements in autism- related symptoms and behaviours. Gastrointestinal problems are common in autism and can include reflux, chronic constipation or diarrhoea, colic, impaired intestinal lining, impaired digestion/break down and poor absorbing of essential nutrients into the bloodstream, bacterial dysbiosis (presence of harmful bacterial in the gut), food allergies and sensitivities and many others. These problems often stay hidden and go untreated because they frequently present in unusual ways and through problem behaviours such as irritability, aggression, destructive behaviours, hyperactivity, sleep problems, anxiety, obsessive and rigid behaviours, strange posturing (for example bending over furniture) or movements, bloating, screaming, chest banging, biting and other types of self- harm.
Several very promising treatments are being studied at the moment following many positive reports by parents and doctors. Some of those approaches include daily supplementation with digestive enzymes and probiotics, or special diets that restrict sugar and complex carbohydrates. A diet that excludes gluten (protein found in wheat and some other grains) and casein (protein found in milk) has gained wide popularity amongst parents and clinicians in recent years. The positive effects of this diet in a number of children and adults are likely linked to the recent discovery that some individuals with autism are sensitive to common food proteins such as those found in wheat and milk. Allergies and food sensitivities are present in many children and adults with autism, who also often suffer intolerances to various things in their environment.