Purpose To reduce morbidity and mortality from hepatitis B virus (HBV) by vaccinating all adults who meet the criteria estab-lished by the Centers for Disease Control.
Learn about Recombivax (Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related. Questions and answers (Q&As) about hepatitis B vaccines from immunization experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Find out who is eligible for hepatitis B vaccine on the NHS, how the vaccine helps and how to get vaccinated against hepatitis B.
Hepatitis A Southeast Michigan Outbreak Hepatitis A Southeast Michigan Outbreak. Public health officials and the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) are continuing to see an elevated number of hepatitis A cases in Southeast Michigan. Since the beginning of the outbreak in August 2. No common sources of food, beverages, or drugs have been identified as a potential source of infection.
Transmission appears to be through direct person- to- person spread and illicit drug use. Those with history of injection and non- injection drug use, homelessness or transient housing, and incarceration are thought to be at greater risk in this outbreak setting. Notably, this outbreak has had a high hospitalization rate. Southeast Michigan Hepatitis A Outbreak Cases and Deaths as of January 4, 2. Table will be updated weekly by 4: 0. Friday. Cases. Hospitalizations.
Deaths. 65. 85. 39 (8. Please note: Table does not include all reported hepatitis A cases in the SE MI outbreak region; only those cases that are identified as outbreak- related. More descriptive data on the current outbreak can be found within the Comprehensive Summary.
Data are provisional and subject to change. Confirmed Cases Referred August 1, 2. January 4, 2. 01. Meeting the SE MI Hepatitis A Outbreak Case Definition County (or city)Total Cases County (or city)Total Cases Macomb.
Livingston. 6 City of Detroit. Lapeer. 5 Wayne. 11. Sanilac. 5 Oakland. Shiawassee. 3 St. Clair. 23 Calhoun.
Monroe. 15 Clare. Washtenaw. 12 Hillsdale. Genesee. 10 Huron. Ingham. 10 Kent. 1 Isabella. Van Buren. 1 Other*1 *Jackson Michigan Department of Corrections. Indicates counties with outbreak- associated cases that are not included in the outbreak jurisdiction.
Hepatitis A Overview. Hepatitis A is a serious, highly contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
HAV is found in the feces (poop) of people with hepatitis A. You can get hepatitis A by eating contaminated food or water, during sex, or just by living with an infected person. Illness can appear 1. In some cases, people can die. Although not all people infected with hepatitis A experience illness, symptoms can include: There are steps you can take to reduce the risk of Hepatitis A transmission.
Hepatitis A is a vaccine- preventable illness. While the hepatitis A vaccine is recommended as a part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule, most adults have not been vaccinated and may be susceptible to the hepatitis A virus. The best way to reduce the risk of getting hepatitis A is to get vaccinated with two doses of Hepatitis A vaccine. It is also recommended to wash your hands after going to the bathroom and before preparing meals for yourself and others. Use your own towels, toothbrushes, and eating utensils.
Do not have sex with someone who has HAV infection or share food, drinks, or smokes with other people. What can the public do to protect themselves and their communities? Vaccination Information. Hepatitis A can be prevented with a safe and effective vaccine. Stop the spread of this infection.
Who Should Get the HAV Vaccine? Persons who are homeless. Persons who are incarcerated. Persons who use injection and non- injection illegal drugs. Persons who work with the high risk populations listed above.
Persons who have close contact, care for, or live with someone who has HAV. Persons who have sexual activities with someone who has HAV. Men who have sex with men. Travelers to countries with high or medium rates of HAV. Persons with chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C.*Persons with clotting factor disorders.*Note: individuals with chronic liver disease (e. C) may not be at increased risk of getting HAV infections but are at increased risk of having poor outcomes if they are infected with HAV.
For information on where to get vaccinated: If you (or someone you know) do not have health insurance, you will likely qualify for free or low cost vaccines. Talk with your local health department to find out if you qualify. For additional local health department information, contact the MDHHS Division of Immunization at 5. Local health department contact information is also available on the Michigan Association for Local Public Health website.
Pinkbook Hepatitis B Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases. Printer friendly version [2. Hepatitis BEpidemic jaundice described by Hippocrates in 5th century BCEs. Cap Ebenisterie Adulte.
Jaundice reported among recipients of human serum and yellow fever vaccines in 1. Australia antigen described in 1. Serologic tests developed in 1. Viral hepatitis is a term commonly used for several clinically similar yet etiologically and epidemiologically distinct diseases. Hepatitis A (formerly called infectious hepatitis) and hepatitis B (formerly called serum hepatitis) have been recognized as separate entities since the early 1. Delta hepatitis is an infection dependent on the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It may occur as a coinfection with acute HBV infection or as superinfection of an HBV carrier.
Epidemic jaundice was described by Hippocrates in the 5th century BCE. The first recorded cases of “serum hepatitis,” or hepatitis B, are thought to be those that followed the administration of smallpox vaccine containing human lymph to shipyard workers in Germany in l. In the early and middle parts of the 2. The role of blood as a vehicle for virus transmission was further emphasized in 1. Beeson described jaundice that had occurred in seven recipients of blood transfusions. Australia antigen, later called hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs. Ag), was first described in 1.
Dane particle (complete hepatitis B virion) was identified in 1. Identification of serologic markers for HBV infection followed, which helped clarify the natural history of the disease. Ultimately, HBs. Ag was prepared in quantity and now comprises the immunogen in highly effective vaccines for prevention of HBV infection. Hepatitis B Virus. Hepatitis B Virus.
Hepadnaviridae family (DNA)Numerous antigenic components. Humans are only known host. May retain infectivity for more than 7 days at room temperature. Hepatitis B Virus Infection. More than 3. 50 million chronically infected worldwide. Established cause of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Human carcinogen—cause of up to 5.
More than 6. 00,0. Hepatitis B Virus. HBV is a small, double- shelled virus in the family Hepadnaviridae. Other Hepadnaviridae include duck hepatitis virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis virus. The virus has a small circular DNA genome that is partially double- stranded. HBV contains numerous antigenic components, including HBs.
Ag, hepatitis B core antigen (HBc. Ag), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe. Ag). Humans are the only known host for HBV, although some nonhuman primates have been infected in laboratory conditions. HBV is relatively resilient and, in some instances, has been shown to remain infectious on environmental surfaces for more than 7 days at room temperature. An estimated 2 billion persons worldwide have been infected with HBV, and more than 3. HBV infection is an established cause of acute and chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is the cause of up to 5.
HCC). The World Health Organization estimated that more than 6. B- associated acute and chronic liver disease.
Several well- defined antigen–antibody systems are associated with HBV infection. HBs. Ag, formerly called Australia antigen or hepatitis- associated antigen, is an antigenic determinant found on the surface of the virus.
It also makes up subviral 2. HBs. Ag can be identified in serum 3.
HBV and persists for variable periods. HBs. Ag is not infectious. Only the complete virus (Dane particle) is infectious. During replication, HBV produces HBs.
Ag in excess of that needed for production of Dane particles. HBs. Ag is antigenically heterogeneous, with a common antigen (designated a) and 2 pairs of mutually exclusive antigens (d, y, w [including several subdeterminants] and r), resulting in 4 major subtypes: adw, ayw, adr and ayr. The distribution of subtypes varies geographically; because of the common “a” determinant, protection against one subtype appears to confer protection against the other subtypes, and no differences in clinical features have been related to subtype.
HBc. Ag is the nucleocapsid protein core of HBV. HBc. Ag is not detectable in serum by conventional techniques, but it can be detected in liver tissue of persons with acute or chronic HBV infection. HBe. Ag, a soluble protein, is also contained in the core of HBV. HBe. Ag is detected in the serum of persons with high virus titers and indicates high infectivity.
Antibody to HBs. Ag (anti- HBs) develops during convalescence after acute HBV infection or following hepatitis B vaccination. The presence of anti- HBs indicates immunity to HBV. Anti- HBs is sometimes referred to as HBs. Ab, but use of this term is discouraged because of potential confusion with HBs. Ag.) Antibody to HBc. Ag (anti- HBc) indicates infection with HBV at an undefined time in the past.
Ig. M class antibody to HBc. Ag (Ig. M anti- HBc) indicates recent infection with HBV. Antibody to HBe. Ag (anti- HBe) becomes detectable when HBe. Ag is lost and is associated with low infectivity of serum.
Engerix- B (hepatitis b adult vaccine) Uses, Dosage, Side Effects. Generic Name: hepatitis B adult vaccine (HEP a TYE tis B a DULT VAX een)Brand Names: Engerix- B, Recombivax HB Adult, Recombivax HB Dialysis Formulation.
What is Engerix- B? Engerix- B vaccine is used to help prevent hepatitis B in adults. Hepatitis is a serious disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver, vomiting, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes). Hepatitis can lead to liver cancer, cirrhosis, or death. Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver that is spread through blood or bodily fluids, sexual contact or sharing IV drug needles with an infected person, or during childbirth when the mother is infected.
Engerix- B works by exposing you to a small amount of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. Engerix- B will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.
Vaccination with hepatitis B adult vaccine is recommended for all adults who are at risk of getting hepatitis B. Risk factors include: having more than one sex partner; being a homosexual male; having sexual contact with infected people; having chronic liver disease; having diabetes and being under age 6. HIV or AIDS; using intravenous (IV) drugs; being on dialysis or receiving blood transfusions; working in an institution for developmentally disabled patients; working in healthcare or public safety and being exposed to human blood; being in the military or traveling to high- risk areas; and living with a person who has hepatitis B. Like any vaccine, the Engerix- B may not provide protection from disease in every person.
Important information. Baseball Leagues In Nj For Adults on this page. You should not receive Engerix- B if you are allergic to baker's yeast. Engerix- B will not protect against hepatitis B if you are already infected with the virus, even if you do not yet show symptoms. Before taking this medicine. Engerix- B will not protect against infection with hepatitis A, C, and E, or other viruses that affect the liver.
It may also not protect against hepatitis B if you are already infected with the virus, even if you do not yet show symptoms. You should not receive Engerix- B if you have ever had a life- threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing hepatitis B, or if you are allergic to baker's yeast.
If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all: multiple sclerosis; kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis); a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia or easy bruising; an allergy to latex rubber; ora neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain (or if this was a reaction to a previous vaccine). You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving Engerix- B.
It is not known whether Engerix- B will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while receiving the series of Engerix- Bs.
It is not known whether hepatitis B vaccine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Tell your doctor if you are breast- feeding a baby.
How is Engerix- B given? Engerix- B is given as an injection (shot) into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor's office or other clinic setting.
The Engerix- B is given in a series of shots. The booster shots are sometimes given 1 month and 6 months after the first shot. If you have a high risk of hepatitis B infection, you may be given an additional booster 1 to 2 months after the third shot.
Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor's instructions or the schedule recommended by your local health department. Hepatitis B adult vaccine dosing information. Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis B Prophylaxis: Primary Vaccination: Engerix- B: Ages 1. Three doses (1. 0 mcg each), IM, on a 0, 1, and 6 month schedule.
Ages 2. 0 and older: Three doses (2. IM, on a 0, 1, and 6 month schedule. Start Engerix- B as soon as possible after exposure. Dosage Information (comprehensive)What happens if I miss a dose? Contact your doctor if you will miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible.
There is no need to start over. Be sure to receive all recommended doses of Engerix- B. You may not be fully protected if you do not receive the full series. What happens if I overdose? An overdose of Engerix- B is unlikely to occur.
What should I avoid before or after receiving Engerix- B? Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity. Engerix- B side effects. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Engerix- B: hives; difficult breathing; fast heartbeat; dizziness, weakness; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life- threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.