The Hospital Management of Hypoglycaemia in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus Revised September 2013.
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Diabetes mellitus - Wikipedia. Diabetes mellitus. Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes.Pronunciation. Specialty. Endocrinology. Symptoms. Frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hungerComplications. Diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcersDiagnostic method.
High blood sugarTreatment. Healthy diet, physical exerciseMedication. Insulin, metforminFrequency. Deaths. 1. 5–5. 0 million per yearDiabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long- term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult- onset diabetes". The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.[1. Dating And Younger Men on this page. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.[1.
Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.[1. As of 2. 01. 5[update], an estimated 4. DM making up about 9. This represents 8. As of 2. 01. 4[update], trends suggested the rate would continue to rise.[1. Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of early death. From 2. The global economic cost of diabetes in 2.
US$6. 12 billion.[1. In the United States, diabetes cost $2. Signs and symptoms. Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).[1. Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM. Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease.
In addition to the known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.[2. Should Juvenile Criminals Be Charged As Adults. Diabetic emergencies.
Low blood sugar is common in persons with type 1 and type 2 DM. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies.
Effects can range from feelings of unease, sweating, trembling, and increased appetite in mild cases to more serious issues such as confusion, changes in behavior such as aggressiveness, seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death in severe cases.[2. Moderate hypoglycemia may easily be mistaken for drunkenness; [2. Mild to moderate cases are self- treated by eating or drinking something high in sugar. Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon.People (usually with type 1 DM) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis, a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.[2.
A rare but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, which is more common in type 2 DM and is mainly the result of dehydration.[2.