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Fossil Inferences. Summary. Students will use their knowledge about fossils to arrange fossil pictures in sequence from oldest to youngest. Materials. Additional Resources.
Books. The Amazing Earth Model Book, Donald M. Silver & Patricia J. Wynne, ISBN # 0- 5. The Big Beast Book, Jerry Booth, ISBN #0- 3. Dinosaur- The story behind the scenery, Allan Hagood, ISBN # 0- 9.
- Get the latest breaking news across the U.S. on ABCNews.com.
- A new study has dropped a bombshell on archaeology, claiming signs of human activity in the Americas far earlier than thought.
- For many people, radiometric dating might be the one scientific technique that most blatantly seems to challenge the Bible’s record of recent creation.
Dinosaurs of Utah and Dino Destinations, Pat Bagley and Gayle Wharton, ISBN #1. The Dinosaur Alphabet Book, Jerry Pallotta. Everything You Need to Know About Science, Anne Zeman and Kate Kelly, ISBN # 0- 5. Eyewitness Books, Fossil, Dr. Paul D. Taylor, ISBN # 0- 7. Eyewitness Books, Rocks and Minerals, Dr.
R. F. Symes ISBN #0- 7. The Extinct Alphabet, Jerry Pallotta, ISBN # 0. The Fossil Factory, Douglas, Niles, and Gregory Eldredge, ISBN #1- 5. Kingfisher Young Knowledge, Rocks and Fossils, Chris Pellant ISBN, #0- 7. Readers Digest, Pathfinders, Dinosaurs, Paul Willis, ISBN # 0- 7.
Earth Science for Children, All About Fossils. Eyewitness Dinosaur. Eyewitness Prehistoric Life. Additional Media.
University of Utah Museum of Natural History Fossil Kit Lorie Millward. Background for Teachers. Scientists have good evidence that Earth is very old, approximately four and one- half billion years old. Scientific measurements such as radiometric dating use the natural radioactivity of certain elements found in rocks to help determine their age.
Scientists also use direct evidence from observations of the rock layers themselves to find the relative age of rock layers. Specific rock formations are indicative of a particular type of environment existing when the rock was being formed. For example, most limestone represents marine environments, whereas, sandstones with ripple marks might indicate a shoreline habitat or riverbed. The study and comparison of exposed rock layers or strata in different areas of Earth led scientists in the early 1. Locally, physical characteristics of rocks can be compared and correlated.
On a larger scale, even between continents, fossil evidence can help in matching rock layers. The Law of Superposition, which states that in an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks the oldest rock layers will be on the bottom, with successively younger rocks on top of these, helps geologists correlate rock layers around the world. This also means that fossils found in the lowest levels in a sequence of layered rocks represent the oldest record of life there. By matching partial sequences, the truly oldest layers with fossils can be worked out. By correlating fossils from various parts of the world, scientists are able to give relative ages to particular strata. This is called relative dating. Relative dating tells scientists if a rock layer is older or younger than another.
This would also mean that fossils found in the deepest layer of rocks in an area would represent the oldest forms of life in that particular rock formation. In reading Earth history, these layers would be read from bottom to top or oldest to most recent.
If certain fossils are typically found only in a certain rock unit and are found in many places worldwide, they may be useful as index or guide fossils in finding the age of undated strata. By using this information from rock formations in various parts of the world and correlating the studies, scientists have been able to construct the geologic time scale: This relative time scale divides the vast amount of Earth history into various sections based on geological events (sea encroachments, mountain- building, and depositional events), and notable biological events (appearance, relative abundance, or extinction of certain life forms). Intended Learning Outcomes. Use Science Process and Thinking Skills. Communicate Effectively Using Science Language and Reasoning.
Instructional Procedures. Invitation to Learn? Teaching about Earths history is a challenge for all teachers. The idea of millions and billions of years is difficult for children and adults to comprehend. However, relative dating or time can be an easy concept for students to learn. In this activity, students begin a sequencing activity with familiar itemsletters written on cards.
Once they are able to manipulate the cards into the correct sequence, they are asked to do a similar sequencing activity using fossil pictures printed on rock layer cards. Sequencing the rock layers will show students how paleontologists use fossils to give relative dates to rock strata. Instructional Procedures.
Part 1: Hand out Nonsense Cards, Set A in random order. Students place on the table and work in small groups to sequence the eight cards by comparing letters that are common to individual cards, and therefore, overlap.
There should be lots of discussion. The first card in the sequence has Card 1, Set A in the lower left- hand corner and represents the bottom of the sequence. Cerebellar Tumors In Adults Radiology here.
What is the "Gap Theory?" • Christian. Answers. Net. See this page in: Esperanto, Japanese, Spanish, Russian. Is the “gap theory” an acceptable way to harmonize the Bible and the geologic record? Answer. Many people have tried to place a gap of indeterminate time between the first two verses of Genesis chapter 1.
There are many different versions as to what supposedly happened in this “gap” of time. Most versions of the “gap” theory place millions of years of geologic time (including billions of fossil animals) in between these two first verses of Genesis. This is the “ruin- reconstruction” version of the gap theory.
However, this undermines the gospel as it allows for death, bloodshed, disease, and suffering before Adam's sin. Because most “ruin- reconstruction” theorists have accepted the millions of years dating for the fossil record, they have thus allowed the fallible theories of scientists to determine the meaning of Scripture. Some put the fall of Satan in this supposed period. But any rebellion of Satan during this gap of time contradicts God's description of His completed creation on day six as all being “very good” (Genesis 1: 3.
All versions of the gap theory impose outside ideas on Scripture and thus open the door for further compromise. These are the verses where there is supposed to be a gap: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form, and empty; and the darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved on the face of the waters (Genesis 1: 1- 2).
Where did the “gap theory” come from? There have been many attempts over the years to harmonize the Genesis account of creation with accepted geology (and its teaching of billions of years for the age of the Earth), such as “theistic evolution” and “progressive creation.” The gap theory was another significant attempt by Christian theologians to reconcile the time scale of world history found in Genesis with the popular belief that geologists provide “undeniable” evidence that the world is exceedingly old (billions of years).
Thomas Chalmers (1. Scottish theologian and first moderator of the Free Church of Scotland, was perhaps the man most responsible for the gap theory. The idea can be traced back to the rather obscure writings of the Dutchman Episcopius (1. Chalmers' lectures in 1. Rev. William Buckland, a geologist, did much to popularize the idea.
Although Chalmers' writings give very little information about the gap theory, many of the details are obtained from other writers such as the 1. Hugh Miller, who quoted from Chalmers' lectures on the subject. This ruin- reconstruction view is held by many who use Bible study aids such as the Scofield Reference Bible, Dake's Annotated Reference Bible, and The Newberry Reference Bible. The most notably influential 1.
G. H. Pember, in his book Earth's Earliest Ages, first published in 1. Numerous editions of this work were published, with the 1. The 2. 0th century writer who published the most academic defense of the gap theory was Arthur C.
Custance in his work Without Form and Void. The basic reason for developing and promoting the gap theory can be seen from the following very telling quotes: Scofield Study Bible: Relegate fossils to the primitive creation, and no conflict of science with the Genesis cosmogony remains.Dake's Annotated Reference Bible: When men finally agree on the age of the Earth, then place the many years (over the historical 6,0. Genesis 1: 1 and 1: 2, there will be no conflict between the Book of Genesis and science.The above quotes are typical of the many compromise positions—accepting so- called “science”[1. Earth, and incorporating this into Scripture. A Testimony of Struggle. Pember's struggle with long “geologic ages” has been the struggle of many Christians, ever since the idea of millions of years for the fossil record became popular in the early 1. Many respected Christian leaders of today wrestle with this same issue.
Recounting Pember's struggle helps us understand the implications of the gap theory. The following is based on or quoted from his book Earth's Earliest Ages. Pember, like today's conservative Christians, defended the authority of Scripture. He was adamant that one had to start from Scripture alone, and not bring preconceived ideas to Scripture, thus changing its meaning. He boldly chastened people who came to the Bible “filled with myths, philosophies, and prejudices, which they could not altogether throw off, but retained, in part at least, and mingled—quite unwillingly, perhaps—with the truth of God” (page 5).
He describes how the Church is weakened when man's philosophies are used to interpret God's Word: For, by skillfully blending their own systems with the truths of Scripture, they so bewildered the minds of the multitude that but few retained the power of distinguishing the revelation of God from the craftily interwoven teachings of men (page 7).
The Atlantean Conspiracy: Dinosaur Hoax. The class “Dinosauria” was originally defined by “Sir”. Richard Owen of the Royal Society, and Superintendent of the British Museum. Natural History Department in 1. In. other words, the existence of dinosaurs was first speculatively hypothesized by. The Masonic media and mainstream press. Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden during his exploration of the upper Missouri.
River, found “proof” of Owen’s theory! A. Joseph Leidy, who. Trachodon,” dinosaur.
Firstly, it should be needless to say that it is impossible. But even more importantly, it is dubious that. And it. is even more dubious that such fossils have supposedly existed for millions of. Masonic renaissance in the mid- 1. No tribes, cultures or countries in the world ever. North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Argentina. Belgium, Mongolia, Tanzania, West Germany and many other places apparently had.
All these places were inhabited and well- explored. According to the book, “The Dinosaur Project,”. Wayne Grady claims the period following this, from. North America where some of the most. In what was known as “The Great Dinosaur. Rush” or “Bone Wars,” Edward Drinker Cope of the Academy of Natural Sciences and Othniel Marsh.
Peabody Museum of Natural History, began a life- long rivalry and passion. They started out. Marsh is said to have.
Cope discovered 5. Out of the 1. 36. None of them once claimed.
In fact, to this day no complete skeleton has. Discoveries. and excavations seem not to be made by disinterested people, such as farmers. The finds are often made during special.
This. seems highly implausible. More believable. Dead Sea scrolls in 1. In some cases of a discovery of. Also very interesting to note are special. David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science.
Fiction”Whatever destination these establishment- funded. In one of the. largest dinosaur excavation sites, called the Ruth Mason Quarry, over.
Casts and original skeletons assembled from these bones are currently on. Florentino Ameghino, head of paleontology at La Plata Museum is. Argentina. Dinosaur.
Earl Douglass sent 3. Carnegie Museum of Natural History throughout his career, all coming from the. Dinosaur National Monument” in Utah. During an expedition to Patagonia, Dr. Luis Chiappe and Dr. Lowell. Dingus supposedly discovered. Many experts have mentioned how.
Dinosaur’ bones sell for a lot of money at auctions. It is a. profitable business. There is pressure for academics to publish papers. Museums. are in the business of producing displays that are popular and appealing. Movie. producers and the media need to produce material to sell to stay in business. The mainstream media loves to hype alleged dinosaurs finds. Much is to be. There are people who desire and crave prestige, fame and attention.
There is. the bandwagon effect and crowd behaviour. And then there are people and. Highly rewarding financial. David. Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”. “A.
Iguanadon, the two. Hadrosaurus foulkii. The people involved could now technically. The stunt worked out so well, and fooled the. To this day. Hadrosaurus foulkii is on display at the Academy of Natural Sciences in. Philadelphia. The bones are said to be. So we learn of an iguana skull being substituted for the skull of a dinosaur. Was the public told at the time?
What are we not being told today?” - David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science. Fiction”What we are not being told is that this is the rule and the not the. To this day not a single. All the museum displays, models, mannequins. Furthermore, the skeletons exhibited in museums are all admittedly. When “dinosaur” bones are transported and prepared they use strips of.
Then after applying a tissue separator to. In an article. titled “A Fossil’s Trail From Excavation to Exhibit” one insider remarked that. Through moldmaking and casting we can totally fabricate limbs, ribs. Plaster, fiberglass and epoxies are often and. In reconstruction work on. We’ve also had success using epoxy putties. Large missing fragments can be sculpted.
In other words, Museum personnel work with. In fact. the huge “dinosaur bone” displays found in museums across the world are. No. independent researcher has ever examined a real dinosaur skull! They claim all the actual fossils are kept in.
Most people believe that dinosaur skeletons displayed in museums. This is. not the case. The real bones are. NO independent researcher has ever.
When. people unaffiliated with the paleontological establishment attempt to gain. Only around 2. 10. Tyrannosaurus Rex bone sets have been found. These dinosaur bone sets have never formed a.
If thousands of. longnecks and large carnivorous reptiles had really roamed Earth, we wouldn’t. Robbin Koefoed, “The Dinosaurs Never. Are we being deceived and brainwashed at an early age into believing a.
Deep probing questions. There may have been an ongoing effort since. Where bones from existing animals are not.
Some material similar or.