In research on scientific discovery learning, it has been found that in order for discovery of learning to be successful, learners need to posses a number of. Social Development Theory (Lev Vygotsky) Overview. The major theme of Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the. Learning theories provide a pedagogical/andragogical basis for understanding how our students learn. As McLeod notes, "Each theoretical perspective offers benefits to.
Teaching and Learning Resources / Learning Theories. Skinner· Known for operant conditioning· A stimulus is provided· A response is generated.· Consequence to the response is present.· Type of consequence is present.· Reinforcement is provided which could be positive or negative.
Pavlov· Known for classical conditioning. · A spontaneous reaction that occurs automatically to a particular stimulus.· To alter the “natural” relationship between a stimulus and a reaction was viewed as a major breakthrough in the study of behavior. Thorndike· Thorndike concluded that animals learn, solely, by trial and error, or reward and punishment. All learning involves the formation of connections, and connections are strengthened according to the law of effect. Intelligence is the ability to form connections and humans are the most evolved animal because they form more connections then any other being. The "law of effect" stated that when a connection between a stimulus and response is positively rewarded it will be strengthened and when it is negatively rewarded it will be weakened. Thorndike later revised this "law" when he found that negative reward, (punishment) did not necessarily weaken bonds, and that some seemingly pleasurable consequences do not necessarily motivate performance.
The "law of exercise" held that the more an S- R (stimulus response) bond is practiced the stronger it will become. As with the law of effect, the law of exercise also had to be updated when Thorndike found that practice without feedback does not necessarily enhance performance. Looking more specifically at academic learning, i. Thorndike's "Theory of Transfer of Identical Elements" represents the central behaviorist stance, that the amount of learning that can be generalized between a familiar situation and an unfamiliar one is determined by the number of elements that the two situations have in common. He concluded that education does not generalize easily and that if it is to be preparation for life beyond school, then it should be as life- like as possible (footnote 6).
Also Thorndike maintained that a skill should be introduced when a learner is conscious of their need for it as a means of satisfying some useful purpose. Regarding material, Skinner specified that to teach well, a teacher must decide exactly what it is they want to teach - only then can they present the right material, know what responses to look for and hence when to give reinforcement that usefully shapes behavior. He suggested 3 principles which teachers should use to promote effective learning: 1) present the information to be learned in small behaviorally defined steps.
Building on these he proposed an alternative teaching technique called programmed learning/instruction and also a teaching machine that could present programmed material. Watson. Watson believed that humans are born with a few reflexes and the emotional reactions of love and rage. All other behavior is established through stimulus- response associations through conditioning. Piaget· Human intelligence and biological organisms function in similar ways. They are both organized systems that constantly interact with the environment.· Knowledge is the interaction between the individual and the environment.· Cognitive development is the growth of logical thinking from infancy to adulthood. Vygotsky. Vygotsky’scomponents of Cognitive Development: · Mastering symbols of the culture and developing the cultural forms of reasoning.· Complex functions begin as social interactions between individuals; gradually acquire meaning and are internalized by the learner.· Speech and other symbols are first mastered as a form of communication and eventually structure and manage a child’s thinking.· Zone of Proximal Development focuses on interactive problem solving.
- Bruner's learning theory is very influential and has direct implications on the teaching practices.Here is a summary of the theory and its implications.
- Various approaches in pedagogy derive from constructivist theory. They usually suggest that learning is accomplished best using a hands-on approach.
- Summary: Attachment theory emphasizes the importance of a secure and trusting mother-infant bond on development and well-being. Originator and key contribu.
- Chapter 2. BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY. Theories of mathematical learning and understanding. According to Romberg (Grouws, 1992), there is no general agreement on the.
Constructivism promotes a more open- ended learning experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and may not be the same for each learner. Piaget· All knowledge is a human construction.· The learner starts with a blank slate.· Not logical thinking. Learning is an internal process that occurs in the mind of the individual. Cognitive conflict is essential to the learning process. Dewey· Education’s connection with society, outside world, life.· What we learn should have meaningful relevancy.· Instruction should center around the child’s experience.
Bruner· Learner constructs new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge· Learning by discovery through developmental stages.· Benchmarks reveal each stage of child’s development, interaction & discovery is learning.· Education relevant to student’s need, stages in cognitive development.
Learning theory (education) - Wikipedia. A classroom in Norway. Learning also takes place in many other settings.
Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how knowledge is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.Behaviorists look at learning as an aspect of conditioning and will advocate a system of rewards and targets in education. Educators who embrace cognitive theory believe that the definition of learning as a change in behavior is too narrow and prefer to study the learner rather than their environment and in particular the complexities of human memory. Those who advocate constructivism believe that a learner's ability to learn relies to a large extent on what he already knows and understands, and the acquisition of knowledge should be an individually tailored process of construction. Transformative learning theory focuses upon the often- necessary change that is required in a learner's preconceptions and world view.
Geographical learning theory focuses on the ways in which contexts and environments shape the learning process.Outside the realm of educational psychology, techniques to directly observe the functioning of the brain during the learning process, such as event- related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging, are used in educational neuroscience. As of 2. 01. 2[update], such studies are beginning to support a theory of multiple intelligences, where learning is seen as the interaction between dozens of different functional areas in the brain each with their own individual strengths and weaknesses in any particular human learner. Educational philosophyClassical theoristsPlato (4.
BC) proposed the question: How does an individual learn something new when the topic is brand new to that person? This question may seem trivial; however, think of a human like a computer. The question would then become: How does a computer take in any factual information without previous programming?
Plato answered his own question by stating that knowledge is present at birth and all information learned by a person is merely a recollection of something the soul has already learned previously, which is called the Theory of Recollection or Platonic epistemology. This answer could be further justified by the paradox of if a person knows something, then they will not need to question it and if a person does not know something, then they will not know to question it at all. Plato says that if one did not previously know something, then they cannot learn it. He describes learning as a passive process, where information and knowledge are ironed into the soul over time. However, Plato's theory elicits even more questions about knowledge: If we can only learn something when we already had the knowledge impressed onto our souls, then how did our souls gain that knowledge in the first place? Plato's theory can seem convoluted; however, his classical theory can still help us understand knowledge today.John Locke (1. Plato's question as well. John Locke offered the "blank slate" theory where humans are born into the world with no innate knowledge. He recognized that something had to be present, however.
This something, to John Locke, seemed to be "mental powers". Locke viewed these powers as a biological ability the baby is born with, similar to how a baby knows how to biologically function when born. So as soon as the baby enters the world, it immediately has experiences with its surroundings and all of those experiences are being transcribed to the baby's "slate". All of the experiences then eventually culminate into complex and abstract ideas. This theory can still help teachers understand their students' learning today.Educational psychologyBehavior analysisThe term "behaviorism" was coined by John Watson (1. Watson believed the behaviorist view is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science with a goal to predict and control behavior. In an article in the Psychological Review, he stated that "its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior.
Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness".[1. Behaviorism has since become one of three domains of behavior analysis, the other two being the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and Applied Behavior Analysis. Methodological behaviorism is based on the theory of only treating public events, or observable behavior.
B. F. Skinner introduced another type of behaviorism called radical behaviorism, or the Conceptual Analysis of Behavior, which is based on the theory of also treating private events; for example, thinking and feeling.
Attachment Theory (Bowlby) - Learning Theories. Summary: Attachment theory emphasizes the importance of a secure and trusting mother- infant bond on development and well- being. Originator and key contributors: John Bowlby (1. British child psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, known for his theory on attachment. Mary Ainsworth (1.
American psychoanalyst known for the `strange situation`Keywords: maternal deprivation, internal working model, strange situation, attachment styles. Attachment Theory (Bowlby)Attachment is described as a long lasting psychological connection with a meaningful person that causes pleasure while interacting and soothes in times of stress. The quality of attachment has a critical effect on development, and has been linked to various aspects of positive functioning, such as psychological well- being. Maternal Deprivation. Bowlby began his journey to attachment theory through research he conducted on child delinquents and hospitalized children. These studies led him to discuss the negative effects of maternal deprivation, the situation in which the mother was either non responsive or absent for long spans of time within the child’s first two years of life.
Bowlby believed that children have an innate need to develop a close relationship with one main figure, usually the mother. When this does not occur, it has negative consequences on development, causing a decline in intelligence, depression, aggression, delinquency, and affectionless psychopathy (a situation in which one is not concerned about the feelings of others). Bowlby’s theory on attachment.
Following the above conclusions regarding maternal deprivation, Bowlby sought to develop a theory which would support and explain his results. He felt that existing theories on attachment from psychoanalytic and behavioral fields were detached from reality and not up to date, thus he began reading into and corresponding with current researchers in the fields of biology and ethology. One study which was particularly influential on attachment theory was conducted by Harlow & Zimmerman in 1. In this study, monkeys were separated from their mothers and put into cages with “surrogate mothers”. One “mother” was made out of wire with an attached bottle, while the other was coated with cloth. The study’s results showed that monkeys chose the cloth mother over the wire mother, even though she did not offer food. These results stand in contrast to classic approaches to attachment which believed that the goal of attachment was the fulfillment of needs, particularly feeding.
Bowlby developed his theory on the basis of these results, claiming attachment to be an intrinsic need for an emotional bond with one’s mother, extending beyond the need to be fed. He believed this to be an evolved need, where a strong emotional bond with one’s mother increases chances of survival. Stages of attachment Preattachment (newborn- 6 weeks): Newborn infants know to act in such a way that attracts adults, such as crying, smiling, cooing, and making eye contact. Although not attached to their mothers yet, they are soothed by the presence of others. Attachment in making (6 weeks- 6 to 8 months): Infants begins to develop a sense of trust in their mothers, in that they can depend on her in times of need. They are soothed more quickly by their mother, and smile more often next to her.
Clear cut attachment (6 to 8 months- 1. Attachment is established. The infant prefers his mother over anyone else, and experiences separation anxiety when she leaves. The intensity of separation anxiety is influenced by the infant’s temperament and the way in which caregivers respond and soothe the infant. My Sister Is Dating My Friend on this page.
Formation of reciprocal relationship (1. As language develops, separation anxiety declines. The infant can now understand when his mother is leaving and when she will be coming back. In addition, a sense of security has developed, in that even when his mother is not physically there, he knows she is always there for him. Bowlby called this sense of security an internal working model.
Attachment styles. Bowlby’s attachment theory was tested using the `strange situation`. Children’s responses to their mother’s presence and absence, and that of a stranger, were recorded. These results served as the basis for the formulation of attachment styles. Secure attachment– Children who have developed secure attachment feel secure and happy, and are eager to explore their surroundings. They know they could trust their mother to be there for them.
Although distressed at their mother’s absence, they are assured she will return. The mother’s behavior is consistent and sensitive to the needs of her child. Anxious avoidant insecure attachment: Children who have developed an anxious avoidant insecure attachment do not trust their mother to fulfill their needs. They act indifferent to their mother’s presence or absence, but are anxious inside. They are not explorative, and are emotionally distant.