Global Public Health Burden of Heart Failure. Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome characterised by the reduced ability of the heart to pump and/or fill with blood.
If you have—or think you have—heart failure, it’s normal to feel scared. But you’re not alone. More than 5.7 million Americans have heart failure. Heart failure is common in adults, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing because of ageing of the population and. What is the life expectancy for someone with advanced congestive heart failure?
From a physiological point of view, HF can be defined as an inadequate cardiac output to meet metabolic demands or adequate cardiac output secondary to compensatory neurohormonal activation (generally manifesting as increased left ventricular filling pressure). HF has recently been classified into three subtypes, namely HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFr. EF), HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFp. EF) and HF mid- range ejection fraction (HFmr.
Journal of Heart and Cardiovascular Research aims to publish scientific articles in any discipline of medicine in Spanish languages.
A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America.
EF), according to the ejection fraction, natriuretic peptide levels and the presence of structural heart disease and diastolic dysfunction. HF has been defined as global pandemic, since it affects around 2. In 2. 01. 2 it was responsible for an estimated health expenditure of around $3. United States (US). Projections are even more alarming, however, with total costs expected to increase by 1.
In this review we describe the epidemiology of HF, providing data about the prevalence, incidence, mortality and morbidity worldwide. Prevalence and Incidence. Currently 5. 7 million people in the US have HF, but the projections are worrisome since it is expected that by 2. Figure 1). 5 In Europe, the EPidemiologia da Insuficiencia Cardiaca e Aprendizagem (Epidemiology of Heart Failure and Learning – EPICA) study performed in the late 1. Portugal reported HF prevalence of 1. Another analysis in Spain showed HF prevalence steadily increasing from 8. The prevalence of HFp.
EF was higher than that of HFr. EF; in the former rates were higher in women, while in the latter they were higher in men. The overall HF prevalence significantly increased with ageing, particularly among patients > 6.
HFp. EF. 7 In Germany in 2. HF was 1. 6 % in women and 1. In Sweden in 2. 01.
HF was 1. 8 % and was similar in men and women, but after adjustment for demographic composition the estimated rate was 2. A recent survey reported HF prevalence of 1. Italy, with rates increasing with the ageing of the population. HF is also an important health problem in Asia, and its prevalence seems to be even higher compared to Western countries, ranging between 1. Currently in China there are 4. HF, with an estimated prevalence of 1. In Japan around 1 million people have the condition, accounting for 1 % of the population.
In India the estimates range between 1. In Southeast Asia 9 million people have HF; with a prevalence of 6. Malaysia and 4. 5 % in Singapore. In South America the HF prevalence is 1 % and in Australia it ranges between 1 % and 2 %, similar to Western countries (see Figure 2). Although aetiologies and clinical characteristics have been studied in Sub- Saharan Africa,2. Few studies have evaluated the different trends in HFr. EF and HFp. EF prevalence and there are currently no data on the emerging HFmr.
EF category. Data are heterogeneous and also depend on the definition used for HFp. EF and HFr. EF, but it might be that about half of HF patients have HFr. EF and half HFp. EF, with the proportion of individuals with HFp. EF increasing, particularly if more unselected populations are considered (see Figure 3). HFp. EF could be dominant in driving the overall HF prevalence, since in the past 2.
HFp. EF but relatively stable or even decreasing rates with HFr. EF (see Figure 4); thus it is expected that by 2. HF will have HFp. EF. 2. 7Open in new tab. Open ppt. Open in new tab.
Open ppt. Notably, the increase in HF prevalence observed worldwide may not necessarily be linked with an increase in HF incidence, which has been reported to be stable or even decreasing in several studies, particularly in women. The ageing of the population, together with improved HF survival due to the advancement in treatments and diagnostic technology could explain the increase in prevalence, whereas the reduction in incidence (due to prevention programmes) may be determined by lower severity and better treatment of acute coronary syndromes. In addition to this, the risk factors for HFp. EF are multifactorial and complex and there is no known prevention other than treatment of the risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity; whereas prevention and early treatment strategies (i.
These observations may explain a reduction in the incidence of HFr. EF but increasing incidence of HFp. EF and HFmr. EF. Currently every year in US there are still 9.
HF, accounting for an incidence approaching 1. At 4. 0 years of age the lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five and at 8. HF remains at 2. 0 %, despite the shorter life expectancy.
In Portugal the EPICA study reported an incidence of 1. In UK, however, the overall incidence rate was 4. In Spain between 2.
HF increased from 2. Notably, the incidence of HFr. EF surpassed that of HFp. EF by 0. 2. 4 cases per 1,0. There were 0. 3. 2 more HFr.
EF cases per 1,0. HFp. EF was 0. 1.
However, when observing the trends over time, in 2. HF plateaued, with HFr.
Heart and Cardiovascular Research. Journal of Heart and Cardiovascular Research is a peer reviewed journal that provides a worldwide platform for dispersal of current findings in the field of cardiology, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, heart attack, impairment of function of cardiac valves and congenital heart diseases. The journal also aims at creating awareness on prevention and early detection of CVDs by monitoring symptoms like frequent recurrence of cardiac angina.
The scope of the journal includes current advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating to cardiac dysfunctions, such as Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA), Echocardiography (ECG), Coronary Angiography, Myocardial Biopsy, Pericardiocentesis, Cardiac Catheterization, Stent Placement, Bypass Surgery and Insertion of Pacemaker. The journal accepts manuscripts providing knowledge on recent findings on various aspects of cardiac anatomy and physiology, cardiovascular pathology and other factors like obesity, smoking and lack of physical exercise which may lead to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The journal accepts original research article, review article, short communication, case report, letter- to- the- Editor and Editorials for publication in an open access platform. All the articles published in the journal can be accessed online without any subscription charges and will receive the benefit of extensive worldwide visibility. Processing of the articles will be done through the Editorial Manager System for hassle free operation by the authors and the publisher.
It helps in maintaining the quality of the peer review process and provides easy access to the authors to track the process of manuscript evaluation and publication in an automated way. All the submitted manuscripts undergo peer review done by the external subject matter experts under the aegis of the Editor- in- Chief or assigned Editorial committee member of the Journal of Heart and Cardiovascular Research. Approval of at least two independent reviewers and the editor is mandatory for any manuscript to be considered for publication. Submit Manuscript at http: //www. Bypass Surgery. To create a new route for blood and oxygen to reach our heart, bypass surgery is a surgery that is done to the problems caused by coronary artery disease and leads the blood to flow through the heart muscle despite blocked arteries. It is actually a surgery of heart blood vessel taken from your leg, arm, chest and abdomen. This surgery creates a new path for the flow of blood to the body.
The surgeon in this therapy takes a healthy piece of vein from a particular part of the body and attaches to the coronary artery just above and below the blocked area of heart. This allows blood to bypass the blockage. As an initial step, the surgeon first insert a heart- lung machine in the patient's body which allows the circulation of oxygenated blood through your body during surgery.
When the surgery is done, the surgeons will remove the machine and the proper functioning of heart is checked. Journals related to Bypass Surgery.
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, Angiology: Open Access, Arrhythmia: Open Access, Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis, Circulation, Postgraduate Medical Journal, Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The New England Journal of Medicine. Heart Attack. It is the blockage of the arteries and vessels that provide oxygen and nutrient- rich blood to heart. It is also called coronary heart disease and is the leading cause of death in humans.
This occurs when the coronary arteries become blocked or clogged. Often this leads to an irregular heartbeat - called an arrhythmia - that causes a severe decrease in the pumping function of the heart. A blockage that is not treated within a few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die. Health Insurance For Low Income Adults In New Jersey. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. Heart attack is sometimes fatal in its initial stage.
However the chances increses if a person is already suffering from any type of cardiac problem. Related Journals of Heart Attack. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, Angiology: Open Access, Arrhythmia: Open Access, Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis, Heart Failure Clinics, Current Heart Failure Reports, Heart failure monitor, JACC: Heart Failure, Journal of Congestive Heart Failure and Circulatory Support. Heart Failure. When the heart is unable to pump sufficiently and stops pumping blood around the body it causes heart failure. The most common causes are heart attack, high blood pressure and cardiomyopathy. Symptoms commonly include shortness of breath, swelling and fatigue.
The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects. A normal heart has valves, arteries and chambers that carry the blood in a circulatory pattern: body- heart- lungs- heart- body. When all chambers and valves work correctly, the blood is pumped through the heart, to the lungs for oxygen, back the heart and out to the body for delivery of oxygen. When valves, chambers, arteries and veins are malformed, this circulation pattern can be impaired. Congenital heart defects are malformations that are present at birth. They may or may not have a disruptive effect on a person's circulatory system. Congenital heart defects are structural problems with the heart present at birth.
They result when a mishap occurs during heart development soon after conception and often before the mother is aware that she is pregnant. Defects range in severity from simple problems, such as "holes" between chambers of the heart, to very severe malformations, such as complete absence of one or more chambers or valves.
Having a congenital heart defect can also increase your risk of developing certain medical conditions. Associated Conditions. Having a congenital heart defect can increase your risk of developing certain medical conditions. Questions about Congenital Heart Defects.
Are all heart problems in children congenital? No, but most are. There are generally three categories of possible childhood heart problems: structural defects, acquired damage and heart rhythm disturbances. These defects are usually - but not always - diagnosed early in life. Rarely, childhood heart problems are not congenital, but heart damage may occur during childhood due to infection. Dating Aunties In Hyderabad Phone Numbers.
This type of heart disease is called acquired; examples include Kawasaki disease and rheumatic fever. Children also can be born with or develop heart rate problems such as slow, fast, or irregular heart beats, known as "arrhythmias". Who is at risk to have a child with a congenital heart defect?
Anyone can have a child with a congenital heart defect. Out of 1,0. 00 births, at least eight babies will have some form of congenital heart disorder, most of which are mild. If you or other family members have already had a baby with a heart defect, your risk of having a baby with heart disease may be higher. Why do congenital heart defects occur?
Most of the time we do not know. Although the reason defects occur is presumed to be genetic, only a few genes have been discovered that have been linked to the presence of heart defects. Rarely the ingestion of some drugs and the occurrence of some infections during pregnancy can cause defects.
How can I tell if my baby or child has a congenital heart defect? Severe heart disease generally becomes evident during the first few months after birth. Some babies are blue or have very low blood pressure shortly after birth. Other defects cause breathing difficulties, feeding problems, or poor weight gain. Minor defects are most often diagnosed on a routine medical check up.
Minor defects rarely cause symptoms. While most heart murmurs in children are normal, some may be due to defects.
How well can people with congenital heart defects function? Virtually all children with simple defects survive into adulthood.
Although exercise capacity may be limited, most people lead normal or nearly normal lives. For more complex lesions, limitations are common. Some children with congenital heart disease have developmental delay or other learning difficulties. What is the social/financial impact of congenital heart defects?
Successful treatment requires highly specialized care. Severe congenital heart disease requires extensive financial resources both in and out of the hospital. Children with developmental delay also require community and school- based resources to achieve optimum functioning.
What is the impact of congenital heart disease on families? The presence of a serious congenital heart defect often results in an enormous emotional and financial strain on young families at a very vulnerable time. Patient/family education is an important part of successful coping.