Community Violence Exposure In Young Adults

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Community Violence Exposure In Young Adults

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By: Laura S. Abrams, Ph. DAssociate Professor. UCLALuskin. Schoolof Public Affairs.

Department of Social Welfare. Introduction. The provision of effective reentry services for detained youth is part of an overall violence prevention strategy.  According to several studies, youth who are detained in a juvenile hall setting have an over 5. Wiebush et al., 2.

Being separated (while detained) even for short periods of time from schools and family members can alienate young people from the mainstream institutions that give them a sense of support and normal routines. In addition, detention itself can have a “contamination effect,” whereby youth who may be detained for more minor offenses are exposed to even more serious criminal associations that can lead to violence (Mendel, 2. Thus the purpose of concerted reentry services is to provide supports that can buffer the likelihood of repeat criminal behavior and/or a worsening criminal trajectory. These supports are most likely to include case management, mentoring, family work, and/or connections to school.

Interventions which are multi- modal, meaning that they work on several levels of the youths’ system, are most likely to reduce recidivism (Abrams & Snyder, 2. The purpose of this study was to examine factors leading to recidivism among youth involved in a reentry program in Oakland, CA. The main questions posed were: 1)    Among youth served, what was the recidivism rate for crimes overall and violent crimes in particular? What risk factors correlated most significantly with likelihood to be reconvicted of a crime? What effect did agency or dosage have on recidivism rates? Program Background. Best Anime Series Of All Time For Adults. The Juvenile Justice Center/Oakland Unified School District Wrap Around Services provides case management and advocacy for youth leaving the Alameda County Juvenile Justice Center (JJC) and reconnecting with Oakland Unified School District or other appropriate educational institutions.  Youth Advocates/Case Managers work with a multi- disciplinary team to promote school attendance and academic progress, family support, and employment as appropriate for youth, starting from the time a youth arrives at the JJC through their return home.  Services are coordinated with Probation to support the successful completion of Court Orders and disengagement from the Juvenile Justice System.

Method. Data sources. Five de- identified datasets were merged from excel spreadsheets into SPSS v. The final data set contained elements from each of those described below all matched by a unique identifier. Dataset 1 (city span master) contained the dates of program entrance and exit, assigned agency, and number of recorded group and individual hours youth served between July 1, 2. June 3. 0, 2. 01. Dataset 2 (assessments) contained assessment scores based on the YLS- CMI tool used by Alameda County Probation department. Dataset 3 (bookings) contained demographic information such as race, age, gender, and zipcode for all youth in the.

Alameda. County juvenile justice system. Dataset 4 (arrests) contained records of all. Alameda. County arrests occurring between January 1, 2. December 3. 1, 2.

Dataset 5 (convictions) contained records of all dispositions for minors in. Alameda. County occurring between January 1, 2.

December 3. 1, 2. Population of Interest: The population of interest included 4. Y transition services between July 1, 2. June 3. 0, 2. 01. Key Variables: the following key variables are referred to throughout this report. New conviction (post- program): a new conviction post- program refers to a conviction that resulted from an arrest that occurred after the program start date. Prior conviction: A conviction that occurred based on an arrest that occurred before the program start date.

Violent conviction (post- program): A conviction related to a violent offense is recognized as such by the California Attorney General’s office. Aggregate risk score: A score related to the YLS/CMI measure that represents the total of all measured risks. A higher score means greater propensity to re- offend. Program dosage: a sum total of all hours served by the JJC program in both individual and group contexts. Analysis strategy: Descriptive statistics were used to examine frequency of post- program convictions, mean risk scores, and demographic characteristics. Chi- square tests, t- tests, and correlations were also used to examine differences between groups on key new conviction outcomes.

Multiple regression and ANOVA were also used to model new convictions by multiple independent variables. Description of Population. Agencies served 4.

Y funding between July 1, 2. June 3. 0, 2. 01. The following are the relevant demographic characteristics related to this population. African American, 2. Hispanic, 7% Asian or Pacific Islander, and 3% other. The average risk level among program participants was 1. This average of 1.

The Impact of Gun Violence on Children, Families, & Communities – CWLAOver the past few years, gun violence has risen to the forefront of public consciousness. Much of the debate has focused on gun regulation and keeping deadly weapons out of the hands of potential killers, particularly those with mental illnesses. Unfortunately, far less attention has been dedicated to the impact of gun violence on victims. While individuals killed and injured in atrocities such as the Sandy Hook and Aurora Theater shootings are publicly remembered and mourned, victims of these tragedies are not limited to those men, women, and children killed, injured, or present during these horrific events.

The consequences of gun violence are more pervasive and affect entire communities, families, and children. With more than 2. Finkelhor et al., 2. Although mental health problems are part of the debate about gun regulation, the discussion has focused primarily upon the mental health of the perpetrators’ of gun crimes. In fact, most people with mental illnesses are not violent and are actually more likely to be victimized than they are to victimize others (Teplin et al, 2.

While much more can be done to address the problems of perpetrators with a mental illness, that conversation alone will not address the problems associated with gun violence. The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) believes it is time to broaden the focus of the gun debate to include the social, emotional, physical, and mental health impact of those traumatized by gun violence, especially children and youth. In their 2. 00. 2 article “Mitigating the Effects of Gun Violence on Children and Youth,” James Garbarino and his colleagues pointed out that “children exposed to gun violence may experience negative short and long- term psychological effects, including anger, withdrawal, posttraumatic stress, and desensitization to violence” (Garbarino et al., 2. They also indicate that the research shows that “certain children may be at higher risk for negative outcomes if they are exposed to gun violence.” The groups they identified “include children injured in gun violence, those who witness violent acts at close proximity, those exposed to high levels of violence in their communities or schools, and those exposed to violent media.”Addressing the social, emotional, and physical well- being and mental health needs of children and youth exposed to gun violence is a complex process that requires proper identification of those exposed. It also requires a sufficient number of providers trained in age- appropriate, evidence- based, and trauma- informed treatments to concurrently understand all of these concerns. In addition, it requires our society to find ways to reduce the actual numbers of children and youth who are initially exposed to gun violence.

This is no easy task, given the many settings in our world that contain violent situations or imagery: schools, homes, communities, and the media. At CWLA’s 2. 01. 3 National Conference, our staff and its Mental Health Advisory Board brought together professionals in the child welfare and mental health fields for a Listening Session on the topic of gun violence . Together, they started a dialogue about the often ignored impact of gun violence on the well- being of children, youth, families, and communities and discussed current efforts to address this issue; they also identified problems encountered in both policy and practice fields, providing suggestions and potential solutions. Influenced by CWLA’s National Blueprint for Excellence in Child Welfare and its vision for all children and youth to grow up safely, with loving families and supportive communities, the conversation focused on the shared responsibility of individuals, families, organizations, and communities for ensuring the safety and well- being of children and youth. Specifically, participants focused on the culture of violence and fear in many of the communities they serve, the difficulties of combating gun use and violence, the need for community development that is focused on reducing violence, the impact on the children and youth exposed to violence, and what is needed to address the mental health needs of those exposed to gun violence.

Guns and Violence. CWLA’s National Blueprint voices the need to protect the fundamental rights of children and emphasizes the obligation that all individuals have in ensuring a safe and supportive environment for children and youth. In line with the National Blueprint, participants at our 2. They also pointed out the necessity of addressing gun regulation and violence at the national level, fighting for legislative protections for children and youth. Many participants voiced frustration with the role guns currently have in American society and their frequent glorification in the media.