Management of mild hypertension in adults. Elevated blood pressure is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects one in three adults. Blood pressure lowering drugs substantially reduce the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and premature death, but most clinical trials showing benefits have primarily included patients with moderate to severe hypertension, known cardiovascular disease, or elevated risk of cardiovascular disease.
The benefits of treating mild hypertension in patients without cardiovascular disease are less clear, but recent meta- analyses offer some insights. Pooled data from trials that include a large percentage of participants with mild hypertension show significant reductions in stroke, death from cardiovascular disease, and total mortality. Meta- analyses comparing lower blood pressure targets also suggest a benefit of treating patients with mild hypertension, although net benefits are greater for patients at higher absolute levels of cardiovascular disease risk. Before starting drug treatment, most patients should have out- of- office monitoring to confirm hypertension. Lifestyle modifications for reducing blood pressure are appropriate for all patients and may be recommended while delaying drug treatment for those at lower absolute levels of cardiovascular disease risk.
Patient level control of blood pressure is supported by home monitoring and by once daily, low cost drug. Control of blood pressure for a population of patients is enhanced by system level interventions such as registries, implementation of evidence based protocols, drug titration visits, and performance metrics.
Physical Activity/Exercise and Diabetes: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. The adoption and maintenance of physical activity are critical foci for blood glucose management and overall health in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes. Recommendations and precautions vary depending on individual characteristics and health status. In this Position Statement, we provide a clinically oriented review and evidence- based recommendations regarding physical activity and exercise in people with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, and prediabetes.
Physical activity includes all movement that increases energy use, whereas exercise is planned, structured physical activity. Exercise improves blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes, reduces cardiovascular risk factors, contributes to weight loss, and improves well- being (1,2).
Learn about Trental (Pentoxifylline) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. For prevention and management of diabetes complications in children and adolescents, please refer to Section 12 “Children and Adolescents.” Atherosclerotic. Type a term to search within all articles in this journal: e.g., stem cell. ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart.
Regular exercise may prevent or delay type 2 diabetes development (3). Regular exercise also has considerable health benefits for people with type 1 diabetes (e. The challenges related to blood glucose management vary with diabetes type, activity type, and presence of diabetes- related complications (5,6).
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Physical activity and exercise recommendations, therefore, should be tailored to meet the specific needs of each individual. TYPES AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF DIABETES AND PREDIABETESPhysical activity recommendations and precautions may vary by diabetes type. The primary types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes (5%–1. Although it can occur at any age, β- cell destruction rates vary, typically occurring more rapidly in youth than in adults.
Type 2 diabetes (9. Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs during pregnancy, with screening typically occurring at 2. Prediabetes is diagnosed when blood glucose levels are above the normal range but not high enough to be classified as diabetes; affected individuals have a heightened risk of developing type 2 diabetes (7) but may prevent/delay its onset with physical activity and other lifestyle changes (8). TYPES OF EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYAerobic exercise involves repeated and continuous movement of large muscle groups (9). Activities such as walking, cycling, jogging, and swimming rely primarily on aerobic energy- producing systems. Resistance (strength) training includes exercises with free weights, weight machines, body weight, or elastic resistance bands.
Flexibility exercises improve range of motion around joints (1. Transformers Clothing For Adults. Balance exercises benefit gait and prevent falls (1.
Activities like tai chi and yoga combine flexibility, balance, and resistance activities. BENEFITS OF EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYAerobic Exercise Benefits.
Aerobic training increases mitochondrial density, insulin sensitivity, oxidative enzymes, compliance and reactivity of blood vessels, lung function, immune function, and cardiac output (1. Moderate to high volumes of aerobic activity are associated with substantially lower cardiovascular and overall mortality risks in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (1. In type 1 diabetes, aerobic training increases cardiorespiratory fitness, decreases insulin resistance, and improves lipid levels and endothelial function (1.
In individuals with type 2 diabetes, regular training reduces A1. C, triglycerides, blood pressure, and insulin resistance (1. Alternatively, high- intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes rapid enhancement of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes (1. Resistance Exercise Benefits. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for low muscular strength (2.
The health benefits of resistance training for all adults include improvements in muscle mass, body composition, strength, physical function, mental health, bone mineral density, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and cardiovascular health (1. The effect of resistance exercise on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes is unclear (1. However, resistance exercise can assist in minimizing risk of exercise- induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes (2. When resistance and aerobic exercise are undertaken in one exercise session, performing resistance exercise first results in less hypoglycemia than when aerobic exercise is performed first (2. Resistance training benefits for individuals with type 2 diabetes include improvements in glycemic control, insulin resistance, fat mass, blood pressure, strength, and lean body mass (2. Benefits of Other Types of Physical Activity. Flexibility and balance exercises are likely important for older adults with diabetes.
Limited joint mobility is frequently present, resulting in part from the formation of advanced glycation end products, which accumulate during normal aging and are accelerated by hyperglycemia (2. Stretching increases range of motion around joints and flexibility (1. Balance training can reduce falls risk by improving balance and gait, even when peripheral neuropathy is present (1. Elena`S Models Russian Wives.
Speech- language pathology - Wikipedia. Speech- language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech- language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist or speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with occupational therapy, physical therapy, and others. SLPs specialize in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of communication disorders, cognitive- communication disorders, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders, and play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorder.
A common misconception is that speech- language pathology is restricted to adjusting a speaker's speech sound articulation to meet the expected normal pronunciation, such as helping English speaking individuals enunciate the traditionally difficult "r". SLPs can also often help people who stutter to speak more fluently. Articulation and fluency are only two facets of the work of an SLP, however. In fact, speech- language pathology is concerned with a broad scope of speech, language, swallowing, and voice issues involved in communication, some of which include: Word- finding and other semantic issues, either as a result of a specific language impairment (SLI) such as a language delay or as a secondary characteristic of a more general issue such as dementia. Social communication difficulties involving how people communicate or interact with others (pragmatics). Structural language impairments, including difficulties creating sentences that are grammatical (syntax) and modifying word meaning (morphology).
Literacy impairments (reading and writing) related to the letter- to- sound relationship (phonics), the word- to- meaning relationship (semantics), and understanding the ideas presented in a text (reading comprehension). Voice difficulties, such as a raspy voice, a voice that is too soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person's social or professional performance.
Cognitive impairments (e. The components of speech production include: The components of language include: Phonology (manipulating sound according to the rules of a language); Morphology (understanding components of words and how they can modify meaning); Syntax (constructing sentences according to the grammatical rules of a target language); Semantics (interpreting signs or symbols of communication such as words or signs to construct meaning); Pragmatics (social aspects of communication).Primary pediatric speech and language disorders include receptive and expressive language disorders, speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia of speech, stuttering, and language- based learning disabilities.Swallowing disorders include difficulties in any system of the swallowing process (i. Swallowing disorders can occur at any age and can stem from multiple causes.The professionSpeech- language pathologists (SLPs) provide a wide range of services, mainly on an individual basis, but also as support for individuals, families, support groups, and providing information for the general public.
SLPs work to prevent, assess, diagnose, and treat speech, language, social communication, cognitive- communication, and swallowing disorders in children and adults. Speech services begin with initial screening for communication and swallowing disorders and continue with assessment and diagnosis, consultation for the provision of advice regarding management, intervention, and treatment, and providing counseling and other follow up services for these disorders. Services are provided in the following areas: cognitive aspects of communication (e. Research demonstrates voice therapy to be especially helpful with certain patient populations; individuals with Parkinson's Disease often develop voice issues as a result of their disease.sensory awareness related to communication, swallowing, or other upper aerodigestive functions. Speech, language, and swallowing disorders result from a variety of causes, such as a stroke, brain injury, hearing loss,[1. Best Parts Of Disney World For Adults on this page. Multi- discipline collaborationSLPs collaborate with other health care professionals, often working as part of a multidisciplinary team.
They can provide referrals to audiologists and others; offer information to health care professionals (including physicians, dentists, nurse practitioners, nurses, occupational therapists, dietitians), educators, behavior consultants (applied behavior analysis) and parents as dictated by the individual client's needs. In relation to auditory processing disorders,[1. SLPs can collaborate in the assessment and provide intervention where there is evidence of speech, language, and/or other cognitive- communication disorders. The treatment for patients with cleft lip and palate has an interdisciplinary character. The speech therapy outcome is even better when the surgical treatment is performed earlier.[1.
Working environmentsSLPs work in a variety of clinical and educational settings.