Can Juveniles Be Tried As Adults In Australia

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Can Juveniles Be Tried As Adults In Australia

Thylacine - Wikipedia. Thylacine[1]Temporal range: Pliocene - Holocene, 4–0. Ma. Thylacines in Washington D. C., c. 1. 90. 6Scientific classification.

Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: Mammalia. Infraclass: Marsupialia. Order: Dasyuromorphia. Family: †Thylacinidae. Genus: †Thylacinus. Species: †T. cynocephalus.

Binomial name. Thylacinus cynocephalus(Harris, 1. Historic Thylacine range in Tasmania[4]Synonyms.

List. Didelphis cynocephala. Harris, 1. 80. 8[3]Dasyurus cynocephalus. Geoffroy, 1. 81. 0[5]Thylacinus harrisii. Temminck, 1. 82. 4[6]Dasyurus lucocephalus.

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Grant, 1. 83. 1[7]Thylacinus striatus. Warlow, 1. 83. 3[8]Thylacinus communis. Anon., 1. 85. 9[9]Thylacinus breviceps.

Krefft, 1. 86. 8[1. The thylacine (THY- lə- seen,[1. Elevated Beds For Adults. THY- lə- syne,[1. Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.

It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger (because of its striped lower back) or the Tasmanian wolf.[1. Native to continental Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea, it is believed to have become extinct in the 2. It was the last extant member of its family, Thylacinidae; specimens of other members of the family have been found in the fossil record dating back to the late Oligocene.

Surviving evidence suggests that it was a relatively shy, nocturnal creature with the general appearance of a medium- to- large- size dog, except for its stiff tail and abdominal pouch (reminiscent of a kangaroo) and dark transverse stripes that radiated from the top of its back, similar to those of a tiger. The thylacine was an apex predator, like the tigers and wolves of the Northern Hemisphere from which it obtained two of its common names. As a marsupial, it was not closely related to these placental mammals, but because of convergent evolution it displayed the same general form and adaptations. Its closest living relative is thought to be either the Tasmanian devil or the numbat. The thylacine was one of only two marsupials to have a pouch in both sexes (the other being the water opossum). The male thylacine had a pouch that acted as a protective sheath, covering his external reproductive organs while he ran through thick brush. The thylacine has been described as a formidable predator because of its ability to survive and hunt prey in extremely sparsely populated areas.[4]The thylacine had become extremely rare or extinct on the Australian mainland before British settlement of the continent, but it survived on the island of Tasmania along with several other endemic species, including the Tasmanian devil.

Intensive hunting encouraged by bounties is generally blamed for its extinction, but other contributing factors may have been disease, the introduction of dogs, and human encroachment into its habitat. Despite its official classification as extinct, sightings are still reported, though none has been conclusively proven.

Evolution. The skulls of the thylacine (left) and the timber wolf, Canis lupus, are quite similar, although the species are only distantly related. Studies show that the skull shape of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, is even closer to that of the thylacine.[1. The modern thylacine first appeared about 4 million years ago. Species of the family Thylacinidae date back to the beginning of the Miocene; since the early 1.

Riversleigh, part of Lawn Hill National Park in northwest Queensland.[1. Dickson's thylacine (Nimbacinus dicksoni) is the oldest of the seven discovered fossil species, dating back to 2.

This thylacinid was much smaller than its more recent relatives.[1. The largest species, the powerful thylacine (Thylacinus potens) which grew to the size of a wolf, was the only species to survive into the late Miocene.[1. In late Pleistocene and early Holocene times, the modern thylacine was widespread (although never numerous) throughout Australia and New Guinea.[2. An example of convergent evolution, the thylacine showed many similarities to the members of the dog family, Canidae, of the Northern Hemisphere: sharp teeth, powerful jaws, raised heels and the same general body form.

Since the thylacine filled the same ecological niche in Australia as the dog family did elsewhere, it developed many of the same features. Despite this, it is unrelated to any of the Northern Hemisphere predators.[2. They are easy to tell from a true dog because of the stripes on the back but the skeleton is harder to distinguish. Zoology students at Oxford had to identify 1. Word soon got around that, if ever a 'dog' skull was given, it was safe to identify it as Thylacinus on the grounds that anything as obvious as a dog skull had to be a catch. Then one year the examiners, to their credit, double bluffed and put in a real dog skull.

The easiest way to tell the difference is by the two prominent holes in the palate bone, which are characteristic of marsupials generally. Discovery and taxonomy.

Thylacine rock art at Ubirr. Numerous examples of thylacine engravings and rock art have been found dating back to at least 1.

Are petrol powered bikes beyond the law? When Dorothy journeyed through the land of Oz, she could have just as easily been journeying through the strange and confusing land of transport legislation. I’m not making some sort of half- veiled allusion to the Wizard and his ephemeral nature, rather I’m thinking of Dorothy’s companions on her journey – creatures who had a purpose, but ended up almost useless because they were missing some vital component. Motor assisted bicycle laws originally had a purpose – to assist people who wanted to ride bicycles, but who lacked the desire or ability to travel solely by pedal power; it was enabling legislation.

Somehow along the way, however, we’ve ended up with a situation where people are attaching internal combustion engines to cheap mountain bikes and riding them on bike paths. While I don’t have any hard statistics, anecdotally the number of these vehicles is increasing, and a lot of people aren’t happy about it; they have good reason. For a few hundred dollars you can buy a well made imported engine specifically designed to be attached to a mountain bike.

With a few hours and a bit of mechanical knowledge, you’ve got a vehicle that can do around a 1. If you don’t want to go to all of that trouble, for just a little bit extra you can find completely converted bikes openly traded on e. Bay and Gumtree. It’s not illegal to make them or to buy them, but it is illegal to ride them, at least sometimes, and in some states. And there lies the problem.

In states like Queensland,  the law is very clear – bikes do not have internal combustion engines, period. If it has an internal combustion engine, it’s a motorbike and it has to be registered and has to conform with Australian standards for motorbike design. All laws relating to motorised bikes in Queensland relate to bikes with electric motors, everything else is a motorbike. In other states, the laws are often confusing because they don’t always clearly differentiate between electric motors and internal combustion motors. It’s a mismatched collection of maximum wattages, requirements for cut- out speeds and obscure terminology.

Are you allowed to have a motor on your bike? How many cc’s can my engine have before it reaches 2. W? What’s a road related area? While it’s up to the individual to make sure they know and comply with relevant laws, in practice that simply doesn’t happen, especially when they’re updated regularly. Being confused about the law probably isn’t a valid legal defence, but it’s likely a mitigating factor, especially when you can buy and sell these bikes quite legally. If they’re illegal, why are you allowed to buy them?

So what’s the problem with petrol powered bikes? In theory, nothing. Everything that’s good about pedal powered bikes is also good about motorised bikes, with the added benefit that you don’t have to pedal. Cycling can be hard work, especially when the geography doesn’t  cooperate, so having motors on bikes is often a great benefit. In fact, this is how motorbikes were invented, both petrol powered and electric. But the lessons learned in early motorbike development seem to have been forgotten in the past century, and so we may be doomed to repeat them. To explain what I mean, I’ll go back to the very clear description of motorised bikes in Queensland law: if you want to ride it on the road, a bike with an internal combustion engine (or an electric motor over a certain wattage) must comply with the Australian Design rules for motorbikes. To put it simply, putting an engine on a bike may exceed the design specifications of the bike.

That’s what this all boils down to: putting engines on bikes that aren’t designed for engines is dangerous. The brakes, the body, the drive train and the wheels of modern bicycles are simply not designed to deal with the stresses and forces produced by attached internal combustion engines. Backyard bike conversions, while fine in theory, are accidents waiting to happen, and they’ll happen to either the rider or to some other member of the public unlucky enough to be at the wrong place at the wrong time. This is why motorbikes need to be registered, why there are design standards for them and why there is a whole collection of safety gear available for them – they may have once been bicycles, but they’re not any more. And so there is a line, but it’s not clearly drawn.

Electric motors in bikes have followed a very different development pathway to internal combustion motors, but the same danger exists there as well. This is why there is strict legislation about power limits and pedal assist technology. Applying the same laws to internal combustion engines on bikes, as some states seem to do, should provide the same sort of safeguards but, unfortunately, I still don’t think the technology of the internal combustion engine is safe for bicycles.