· A closer look at what was done to cure two patients of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a novel gene therapy — which may be useful against other cancers.
The benefits of art therapy are relatively unknown, but this is a good start to learning about them! Learn how art therapy can benefit you.
Music therapy can be a therapeutic activity for adults with developmental disabilities. Photo Credit: shevtsovy/iStock/Getty Images.
Vision Therapy References and Resources, medical journals, scientific studies, textbooks, peer review journal articles. Sussex Health Care is an independent group of care homes based mainly in Sussex. Focused chiefly on care for older people including people who are mentally frail with.
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Immune System, Loaded With Remade T- cells, Vanquishes Cancer“I have my life back,” he said. Mr. Ludwig’s doctors have not claimed that he is cured — it is too soon to tell — nor have they declared victory over leukemia on the basis of this experiment, which involved only three patients. The research, they say, has far to go; the treatment is still experimental, not available outside of studies. But scientists say the treatment that helped Mr. Ludwig, described recently in The New England Journal of Medicine and Science Translational Medicine, may signify a turning point in the long struggle to develop effective gene therapies against cancer. And not just for leukemia patients: other cancers may also be vulnerable to this novel approach — which employs a disabled form of H. I. V.- 1, the virus that causes AIDS, to carry cancer- fighting genes into the patients’ T- cells.
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In essence, the team is using gene therapy to accomplish something that researchers have hoped to do for decades: train a person’s own immune system to kill cancer cells. Two other patients have undergone the experimental treatment. One had a partial remission: his disease lessened but did not go away completely.
Another had a complete remission. All three had had advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and had run out of chemotherapy options. Usually, the only hope for a remission in such cases is a bone- marrow transplant, but these patients were not candidates for it.
Dr. Carl June, who led the research and directs translational medicine in the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania, said that the results stunned even him and his colleagues, Dr. David L. Porter, Bruce Levine and Michael Kalos.
They had hoped to see some benefit but had not dared dream of complete, prolonged remissions. Indeed, when Mr. Ludwig began running fevers, the doctors did not realize at first that it was a sign that his T- cells were engaged in a furious battle with his cancer. Photo. Tiny magnetic beads force the larger T- cells to divide before they are infused into the patient. Credit. University of Pennsylvania Other experts in the field said the results were a major advance.“It’s great work,” said Dr. Walter J. Urba of the Providence Cancer Center and Earle A. Chiles Research Institute in Portland, Ore.
He called the patients’ recoveries remarkable, exciting and significant. I feel very positive about this new technology. Conceptually, it’s very, very big.”Dr. Urba said he thought the approach would ultimately be used against other types of cancer as well as leukemia and lymphoma. But he cautioned, “For patients today, we’re not there yet.” And he added the usual scientific caveat: To be considered valid, the results must be repeated in more patients, and by other research teams. Dr. June called the techniques “a harvest of the information from the molecular biology revolution over the past two decades.”Hitting a Genetic Jackpot. To make T- cells search out and destroy cancer, researchers must equip them to do several tasks: recognize the cancer, attack it, multiply, and live on inside the patient.
A number of research groups have been trying to do this, but the T- cells they engineered could not accomplish all the tasks. As a result, the cells’ ability to fight tumors has generally been temporary. The University of Pennsylvania team seems to have hit all the targets at once. Inside the patients, the T- cells modified by the researchers multiplied to 1,0.
The researchers said they were not sure which parts of their strategy made it work — special cell- culturing techniques, the use of H. I. V.- 1 to carry new genes into the T- cells, or the particular pieces of DNA that they selected to reprogram the T- cells.
The concept of doctoring T- cells genetically was first developed in the 1. Dr. Zelig Eshhar at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. It involves adding gene sequences from different sources to enable the T- cells to produce what researchers call chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs — protein complexes that transform the cells into, in Dr.
June’s words, “serial killers.”Mr. Ludwig’s disease, chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a cancer of B- cells, the part of the immune system that normally produces antibodies to fight infection. All B- cells, whether healthy or leukemic, have on their surfaces a protein called CD1. To treat patients with the disease, the researchers hoped to reprogram their T- cells to find CD1. B- cells carrying it. But which gene sequences should be used to reprogram the T- cells, from which sources?
And how do you insert them? Photo. FULL OF LIFE William Ludwig, 6. RV parked at his home in New Jersey.
Credit. Jessica Kourkounis for The New York Times Various research groups have used different methods. Viruses are often used as carriers (or vectors) to insert DNA into other cells because that kind of genetic sabotage is exactly what viruses normally specialize in doing. To modify their patients’ T- cells, Dr.
BAAT Blogs International Journal of Art Therapy: Learning Disability Special Edition. June 2. 01. 7. . This important special edition on art therapy with people who have learning disabilities includes a case study, two opinion pieces, a project report and national practice- based guidelines.. EDITORIALThe work reported in the Learning Disability Special Edition takes place within a wider context of policy change and transforming care for people with learning disabilities that has been a focus for the NHS in recent years. This work reflects a snapshot of the thinking, theory building, innovation and development of a clinical consensus for art therapists working in the UK. Central features of the work written about in this edition are the images made by people with learning disabilities in art therapy; however, the front cover image is a painting by an art therapist of his client.
Take a look at this picture. The man stands in front of a whiteboard and holds in his hand an outline of a shopping basket. The whiteboard was used by Kevin O’Farrell at the start of art therapy to help the man identify what he thought he needed.
The man wanted his old life back, before two traumatic events that had happened to him. In the art therapy sessions that followed, the man continued to make images of himself on the whiteboard and repeated this session after session. Because his pictures had to be wiped from the board each week, the therapist started thinking about making a portrait of the man so that he could take it away. This became a collaborative process, with the painting being made by the therapist and the man giving guidance about what he wanted in the picture. An example of this collaboration in the picture is the deliberately unfinished shopping basket that the man is holding. The man initially wanted items painted in it to symbolise his desire to become more independent, but then he decided he would leave it empty because he thought that what he needed in the future might change. Kevin O’Farrell’s image is important for us to consider as it encapsulates four themes emerging from the work of art therapists included in this special edition.
Firstly, themes of supporting people with learning disabilities to make sense of their past and the sometimes extremely difficult events they have lived through that have brought them to need art therapy. Siobhan Burns and Roseanne O’Shea provide an in- depth case study of a woman with a history of abuse by a member of her family and demonstrate, with the addition of retrospectively collected data and reports from support staff, a positive change over time. Secondly, working collaboratively in a way that jointly enables the person to have a stronger voice and say what they need in their present situation. Art therapy can be an empowering encounter with the potential for a rehabilitation of self- image and self- efficacy.
Simon Marshall explores the challenges of articulating and describing the subtleties of change that can take place in therapy ‘in the moment’ and often in non- verbal ways. These moments can be extremely important for some individuals with learning disabilities and they cannot be captured through standard methods like post- therapy questionnaires. Kevin O’Farrell discusses art therapy approaches that include giving feedback and using art therapy to empower self- identity. Thirdly, there is space for innovation, potential and new possibilities. Therapists work flexibly to connect with their clients in a way that allows them to make best use of the learning about themselves and others that takes place.
The images we make can teach us a lot about ourselves, especially if we are limited in our ability to speak or find the right words at the time. I am delighted that Penny Hallas and Lydia Cleaves are extending the palette of traditional materials available for art therapists to work with.
They report on a project using digital and gesture- based technology across the spectrum of arts engagement and art therapy. This work extends the therapeutic reach of art- based therapies and gives potential for these approaches to become increasingly accessible to a wider range of people, including those with profound and multiple learning disabilities. Fourthly, we must consider the wider context that our clients live in. In a changing health and social care landscape, art therapists are developing holistic ways of working with children and adults who have learning disabilities. This special edition includes the ‘UK Art Therapy practice- based guidelines for children and adults with learning disabilities’, which it has been my pleasure to develop with colleagues Liz Ashby, Karen Parker, Sandra Goody, Nicki Power and the Art Therapy and Learning Disability Special Interest Group in the British Association of Art Therapists.
Kevin O'Farrell's article has been made free access for 6 months for all to see here. Horror Movie Halloween Costumes Adults.
Expressing Emotions Through Creativity: A 6- Step Art Process. Using the art process to help clients express and explore their emotions is at the core of art therapy, but there are many different ways to do this. Sometimes the emotions are expressed unexpectedly or naturally arise from a directive that is not directly about feelings.
For example, in “playing” with watercolors through a sensory- based activity, the client might discover that emotions are coming up in themselves or through the art. Or a prompt for a client to create a collage about family is likely to lead to an exploration of feelings that are reflected in the chosen images. At other times, the therapist might want to more directly encourage the expression or exploration of emotions through art.
They might set up a directive in a way that will enhance affective processing or will directly give clients a prompt to make art related to their feelings. Why is it helpful for clients to express emotions through art? Art can provide a healthy outlet for feelings that clients need to get out. Causes Asthme Adulte.
Art is an alternate way to communicate something that clients cannot always put into words. By witnessing the art, the therapist gives the client the experience of validation and acceptance of their feelings. The art can provide safe containment for emotions that are expressed. Art exercises about emotions help clients to be more in touch with and aware of their feelings.
Reflecting on the art can give clients new understanding and insight about their feelings. Art can help clients differentiate between different feeling states. Encouraging client to express their feelings in art is something that I have often done as a therapist, in many different ways over my years as a therapist.
For example, I have asked clients simply to “draw or paint what you’re feeling today.” I have suggested that they draw what anger, depression, or anxiety look like to them. I have done art about feelings and needs.
I have tried feelings mandalas (draw what you’re feeling in the inside of the circle and then what is going on in your life on the outside). I have done feelings hearts and pie charts with kids who have trouble opening up about feelings. I often suggest that overly anxious or angry kids make a monster to represent the feeling. All of these have been helpful for different clients and situations, and I continue to use them when they are appropriate.
However, sometimes the idea of drawing or painting feelings can be really challenging for client who aren’t used to thinking about their emotions in the language of color or metaphor (or who aren’t used to paying attention to their feelings at all). So, I have started using a sequence of 6 pictures to help clients better understand and express their emotions. Each of the drawings/paintings is fairly quick for two reasons.
One, doing the pictures quickly keeps clients from over- thinking their responses. Two, this allows enough time to do all six images within a one hour therapy session, including time for check in, setup, and discussion of the art. It is still challenging for some clients to try to think and express themselves through the art, no matter what directive you give them. And some clients still worry about the final art product looking good or tell me that they don’t like this exercise because they don’t want to pay attention to their emotions.
But many clients have told me that this has been a helpful exercise for them to be able to get in touch with their emotions and to feel some relief through being able to express them. When I’ve done this in a group setting, there is the additional benefit of experiencing one’s emotions accepted and witnessed by the whole group. Group members are often able to relate to each other and enjoy discussing the common connections that they see. Scribble Warmup (2- 5 min) 2.
Happiness (5 min) 3. Anger (5 min) 4. Anxiety or Fear (5 min) 5. Sadness or Depression (5 min) 6. How you feel today (1.
For the scribble warm- up, I encourage clients to cover the first page with scribbles and lines, experimenting with how their materials feel and how many different types of lines they can make. Especially for clients who are not as used to doing art in therapy, this helps them to become more comfortable with the art process and become engaged through a prompt that can really have no right or wrong. For each of the emotions, I encourage clients to do an abstract picture and avoid words, faces, and recognizable images. Vaccination For Adults Australia. I ask them to think about what colors they connect with each feeling and then what lines, shapes, and gestures could express that feeling.
For the “how you feel today” image, I let them know that this may be one of the feelings that they already drew, it may be a combination of feelings, or it may include feelings that were not already explored. At the end of the exercise, we look at all of the pictures together, exploring how they are similar or different and discussing how the clients is feeling today.