- People may have abnormal liver enzyme levels. alone rarely raises serum bilirubin levels >6 mg/dL. of macro-AST can be determined by exclusion.
- High bilirubin levels in adults usually means that there may be an underlying problem involving the red blood cells, liver. abnormal red blood cells.
Bilirubin levels chart adults - Bilirubin low levels in adults means? Nothing. There are no pathologic processes causing abnormally low bilirubin levels. You may need this test if the results of a total bilirubin blood test are abnormal. Your total bilirubin. adults is: Total bilirubin. indirect bilirubin levels.
Abnormal Bilirubin Levels In Adults
Bilirubin test Results - Mayo Clinic. Bilirubin test results are expressed as direct, indirect or total bilirubin.
Elevated bilirubin levels. This results in the production of an abnormal protein, which can cause a complete or near loss of function (type I).
Total is a combination of direct and indirect bilirubin. Typically, you'll get results for direct and total bilirubin. Normal results for a bilirubin test are 1. L) of total bilirubin for adults, and usually 1 mg/d. L for those under 1. Normal results for direct bilirubin are generally 0. L. These results may vary slightly from laboratory to laboratory.
Normal results may be slightly different for women and children, and results may be affected by certain foods, medications or strenuous exercise. Be sure to tell your doctor about any foods or medications you've taken and your activity levels so that your results can be interpreted correctly.
Lower than normal bilirubin levels are usually not a concern. Elevated levels may indicate liver damage or disease. Higher than normal levels of direct bilirubin in your blood may indicate your liver isn't clearing bilirubin properly. Elevated levels of indirect bilirubin may indicate other problems. One common, and harmless, cause of elevated bilirubin is Gilbert's syndrome, a deficiency in an enzyme that helps break down bilirubin.
Your doctor may order further tests to investigate your condition. Bilirubin test results also may be used to monitor the progression of certain conditions such as jaundice.
Oct. 1. 3, 2. 01. Bilirubin, serum. Mayo Medical Laboratories. Clinical+and+Interpretive/8. Accessed Aug. 7, 2. Bilirubin. Lab Tests Online. Accessed Aug. 1. 0, 2.
Friedman LS. Clinical aspects of serum bilirubin determination. Accessed Aug. 7, 2. Longo DL, et al., eds.
Jaundice and evaluation of liver function. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York, N. Y.: The Mc. Graw- Hill Companies; 2. Accessed Aug. 7, 2. Woman African Dating Marriage.
Bilirubin - Wikipedia. Bilirubin. Identifiers. Ch. EBIChem. Spider. ECHA Info. Card. 10. UNIIIn. Ch. I=1. S/C3. H3. 6N4. O6/c. 1- 7- 2.
H,1- 2,9- 1. 2,1. H2,3- 6. H3,(H,3. H,3. 7,4. 2)(H,3. H,4. 0,4. 1)/b. 26- 1. YKey: BPYKTIZUTYGOLE- IFADSCNNSA- N YKey: BPYKTIZUTYGOLE- IFADSCNNBSCC1=C(/C=C2.
C(C)=C(C=C)C(N/2)=O)NC(CC3=C(CCC(O)=O)C(C)=C(/C=C4. C(C=C)=C(C)C(N/4)=O)N3)=C1. CCC(O)=OCc. 1c(c([n. H]c. 1/C=C\2/C(=C(C(=O)N2)C=C)C)Cc. H]3)/C=C\4/C(=C(C(=O)N4)C)C=C)C)CCC(=O)O)CCC(=O)OProperties.
C3. 3H3. 6N4. O6. Molar mass. 58. 4. Supplementary data page. Refractive index (n),Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
Thermodynamicdata. Phase behavioursolid–liquid–gas.
UV, IR, NMR, MSExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 2. C [7. 7 °F], 1. 00 k. Pa). Y verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references. Bilirubin (formerly referred to as haematoidin and discovered by Rudolf Virchow in 1. This catabolism is a necessary process in the body's clearance of waste products that arise from the destruction of aged red blood cells. First the hemoglobin gets stripped of the heme molecule which thereafter passes through various processes of porphyrin catabolism, depending on the part of the body in which the breakdown occurs.
For example, the molecules excreted in the urine differ from those in the faeces. The production of biliverdin from heme is the first major step in the catabolic pathway, after which the enzymebiliverdin reductase performs the second step, producing bilirubin from biliverdin. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases. It is responsible for the yellow color of bruises and the yellow discoloration in jaundice.
Its subsequent breakdown products, such as stercobilin, cause the brown color of faeces. A different breakdown product, urobilin, is the main component of the straw- yellow color in urine. It has also been found in plants.ChemistryBilirubin consists of an open chain of four pyrrole- like rings (tetrapyrrole). In heme, these four rings are connected into a larger ring, called a porphyrin ring. Bilirubin can be "conjugated" with a molecule of glucuronic acid which makes it soluble in water (see below). This is an example of glucuronidation.
Bilirubin is very similar to the pigmentphycobilin used by certain algae to capture light energy, and to the pigment phytochrome used by plants to sense light. All of these contain an open chain of four pyrrolic rings.
Like these other pigments, some of the double- bonds in bilirubin isomerize when exposed to light. This is used in the phototherapy of jaundiced newborns: the E,Z- isomers of bilirubin formed upon light exposure are more soluble than the unilluminated Z,Z- isomer, as the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bonding is removed. This allows the excretion of unconjugated bilirubin in bile. Some textbooks and research articles show the incorrect geometric isomer of bilirubin. The naturally occurring isomer is the Z,Z- isomer.
FunctionBilirubin is created by the activity of biliverdin reductase on biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment that is also a product of heme catabolism. Bilirubin, when oxidized, reverts to become biliverdin once again. This cycle, in addition to the demonstration of the potent antioxidant activity of bilirubin, has led to the hypothesis that bilirubin's main physiologic role is as a cellular antioxidant.MetabolismUnconjugatedThe measurement of unconjugated bilirubin depends on its reaction with diazosulfanilic acid to create azobilirubin. However, unconjugated bilirubin also reacts slowly with diazosulfanilic acid, so that the measured indirect bilirubin is an underestimate of the true unconjugated concentration. ConjugatedIn the liver, bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid by the enzyme glucuronyltransferase, making it soluble in water: the conjugated version is the main form of bilirubin present in the "direct" bilirubin fraction. Much of it goes into the bile and thus out into the small intestine.
Though most bile acid is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum to participate in enterohepatic circulation, conjugated bilirubin is not absorbed and instead passes into the colon.[1. There, colonic bacteria deconjugate and metabolize the bilirubin into colorless urobilinogen, which can be oxidized to form urobilin and stercobilin. Urobilin is excreted by the kidneys to give urine its yellow color and stercobilin is excreted in the faeces giving stool its characteristic brown color.
A trace (~1%) of the urobilinogen is reabsorbed into the enterohepatic circulation to be re- excreted in the bile.[1.